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The effectiveness of image congruence and the moderating effects of sponsor motive and cheering event fit in sponsorship
Sangpil Han, Jiwon Choi, Hyunchil Kim, John A. Davis and Ki-Young Lee, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 32, No. 2, 2013, pp. 301-317
Using the case study data of the South Korea 2002 and 2006 World Cup sponsorship campaigns, this study examined (1) whether more favourable sponsorship response occurs as image congruence between a sponsor and the World Cup increases, and whether (2) consumer attributions of a sponsor’s motives in sponsoring the World Cup and (3) a sponsor’s perceived fit in aiding World Cup cheering events, namely cheering event fit, moderate image congruence’s effects on sponsorship response.
Using the case study data of the South Korea 2002 and 2006 World Cup sponsorship campaigns, this study examined (1) whether more favourable sponsorship response occurs as image congruence between a sponsor and the World Cup increases, and whether (2) consumer attributions of a sponsor’s motives in sponsoring the World Cup and (3) a sponsor’s perceived fit in aiding World Cup cheering events, namely cheering event fit, moderate image congruence’s effects on sponsorship response. Consistent with prior research, results suggest that high vs low image congruence sponsorships generate more favourable responses to the sponsorship, as measured by attitudes and intentions at three different levels of the hierarchy of effects. Results also show that high cheering event fit leads to more favourable sponsorship response. Furthermore, a negative interaction between image congruence and cheering event fit indicates that, albeit still significant and positive, the effect of image congruence on sponsorship response becomes significantly weaker at higher levels of cheering event fit than at lower levels of cheering event fit. A moderating role of a sponsor’s sponsoring motive has not been supported. Overall, the findings underscore the significance of image congruence as well as the utility of cheering event fit as a particular type of ‘created fit’ that can be used to reduce the perception of low fit and its associated risks.
Pop concert experiences: Connecting with consumers through pop-culture
Tomasz Jedrkiewicz and Robert Zydel, ESOMAR, CEE Research Forum, Prague, March 2013
This paper describes a project undertaken by telecoms firm T-Mobile, based around two events aimed at engaging consumers using pop culture using pop divas Katy Perry and Mariah Carey.
This paper describes a project undertaken by telecoms firm T-Mobile, based around two events aimed at engaging consumers using pop culture using pop divas Katy Perry and Mariah Carey. The reasoning behind launching the project is that marketing communication cannot be based solely on information about the product, brand or service; instead, to attract attention and establish a relationship with the consumer, it must give value, help build identity, or be recreational. The paper describes how the events created challenges for organizers as well as researchers, who were responsible for evaluating the participants as well as the suitability of the events to the T-Mobile brand. It also highlights the challenges of evaluating events, how methods and instruments of research were adjusted to measure emotions, and a comparison of real occurrences with the symbolic brand representation.
For Better, for Worse? What to Do when Celebrity Endorsements Go Bad
François A. Carrillat, Alain d'Astous and Josianne Lazure, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 53, No. 1, 2013, pp. 15-30
This experimental study examined what is the optimal decision for a company whose brand is endorsed by a celebrity immersed in a scandal (revoking versus continuing the endorsement) as a function of brand/endorser fit (congruence versus incongruence) and of the veracity of the negative event created by the celebrity’s reaction (denying versus admitting the facts).
This experimental study examined what is the optimal decision for a company whose brand is endorsed by a celebrity immersed in a scandal (revoking versus continuing the endorsement) as a function of brand/endorser fit (congruence versus incongruence) and of the veracity of the negative event created by the celebrity’s reaction (denying versus admitting the facts). In the case of congruence, revoking the endorsement is suboptimal with respect to brand attitude and purchase intention. Furthermore, denying lowered the endorser’s trustworthiness which, in turn, hampered attitude and intention. Managerial and theoretical implications, as well as directions for further research, were also considered.
What makes sponsorships persuasive? Creative best practices for branded or sponsored microsites
Sylvia Barney, Leah Spalding and Alina Bekkerman, ARF Experiential Learning, Audience Measurement 7.0, 2012
This paper outlines how Microsoft Advertising sought to identify which elements of online sponsorships are linked to strong in-market performance, by using Millward Brown Digital's 'MarketNorms' database.
This paper outlines how Microsoft Advertising sought to identify which elements of online sponsorships are linked to strong in-market performance, by using Millward Brown Digital's 'MarketNorms' database. The analysis revealed that online sponsorships have a more positive branding effect compared to a typical digital campaign. Specifically, successful online sponsorships are likely to include both interactive and non-interactive elements and have the strongest impact when they are contextually relevant. The analysis also claims online sponsorships that use celebrity spokespeople or co-branding are more likely to struggle in-market. The paper also outlines the impact of online sponsorships in the automotive and CPG market, claiming automotive sponsorships tend to be twice as persuasive as the typical digital automotive campaign and CPG sponsorships are incrementally stronger than typical CPG campaigns. The paper also provides a summary of creative elements in online sponsorships that have the most impact in meeting specific branding goals, such as online ad awareness and brand favourability.
The effectiveness of advertising that leverages sponsorship and cause-related marketing: a contingency model
Chingching Chang, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 31, No. 2, 2012, pp. 317-337
This paper shows that consumers are more likely to have ambivalent attitudes towards cause-related marketing (CRM) than sponsorship.
This paper shows that consumers are more likely to have ambivalent attitudes towards cause-related marketing (CRM) than sponsorship. Whereas consumers share similar positive perceptions of CRM and sponsorship, and attribute the motives behind them to altruism, their negative perceptions and attributions of CRM are more accessible than those of sponsorships. On the basis of these differences, this article proposes a contingency model in which suppressing the activation of CRM’s negative perceptions enhances the effectiveness of advertising that leverages CRM. The effectiveness of advertising that leverages corporate sponsorship, which is not associated with ambivalent perceptions, is less subject to the suppression of negative perceptions. The model includes two contingent factors, an individual difference factor and a situational factor. The results generally support the proposed model; the effectiveness of ads leveraging CRM improves when negative associations of CRM are less likely to be activated.
The Flipside of the Sponsorship Coin: Do You Still Buy the Beer When the Brewer Underwrites a Rival Team?
Lars Bergkvist, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 52, No. 1, 2012, pp. 65-73
This study investigated whether sponsorships can have negative brand effects in some subgroups in the target market.
This study investigated whether sponsorships can have negative brand effects in some subgroups in the target market. The study focused on European football (soccer), and results showed that fans of the Stockholm team AIK transferred their dislike of the rival team Hammarby to its sponsor, the beer brand Falcon. Mean scores on brand variables were considerably lower for AIK fans than for a control group who were fans of neither AIK nor Hammarby. Researchers and managers are recommended to consider possible negative effects of sponsorships in subgroups and to evaluate the target audience’s attitude toward the sponsored object.
Warning Flags on the Race Track: The Global Markets' Verdict on Formula One Sponsorship
Joe Cobbs, Mark D. Groza and Stephen W. Pruitt, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 52, No. 1, 2012, pp. 74-86
The globalization of media content has encouraged the growth of cross-cultural promotional channels. Yet, empirical evaluations of advertising strategies at an international level are sparse.
The globalization of media content has encouraged the growth of cross-cultural promotional channels. Yet, empirical evaluations of advertising strategies at an international level are sparse. This study advances research in this emerging area by analyzing the global financial markets’ valuation of commercial sponsorships in Formula One (F1) motor racing. Although previous research indicated that US markets have approved of similar promotional investments, the results of this international event study demonstrated that the market value of firms entering into F1 sponsorships decline upon announcement. The level of investment and nationality congruence of the sponsorship appear to enhance the probability for negative returns in shareholder value.
Managing a sponsored brand: the importance of sponsorship portfolio congruence
Mark D. Groza, Joe Cobbs and Tobias Schaefers, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 31, No. 1, 2012, pp. 63-84
The congruence or fit between a sponsored brand and sponsoring firm is a central tenet of sponsorship research.
The congruence or fit between a sponsored brand and sponsoring firm is a central tenet of sponsorship research. The influence of such congruence on the sponsored brand however, has received scant attention. This question is important because the strength of a sponsored organisation's brand equity is the basis for many sponsorship alliances. The two experiments undertaken in this paper empirically evaluate the dynamic effect sponsor portfolio congruence has on perceptions of the sponsored organisation's brand equity. The results of Study 1 indicate sponsor incongruence is particularly detrimental to the brand equity of the sponsored organisation at the title sponsor level. Study 2 shows this adverse effect can be attenuated by increasing the number of congruent sponsors at the presenting level. The second study also provides support for nationality as a salient congruence dimension in an international sporting context. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Event-related advertising and the special case of sponsorship-linked advertising
Sarah J. Kelly, T. Bettina Cornwell, Leonard V. Coote and Anna R. McAlister, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 31, No. 1, 2012, pp. 15-37
Corporate sponsorship is a valuable brand-building platform, typically leveraged by advertising and promotion.
Corporate sponsorship is a valuable brand-building platform, typically leveraged by advertising and promotion. While advertising often 'uses news' to connect to meaningful events, sponsorship contracts create a special category of advertisers that have official rights to event affiliation. In fact, sponsorship-linked marketing creates two special categories of advertiser: those officially linked to the event and those that seek association with the event but have no legitimate link (i.e. 'ambushers'). We examine the prevalence and nature of sponsorship-linked advertising (SLA) as a leveraging strategy employed by both sponsors and ambushers. SLA includes advertising that communicates a sponsorship link or tie, as well as advertising that demonstrates a theme that links to sponsorship. Two content analytic studies find extensive use of SLA by ambushers and true sponsors. We propose a diagnostic method to identify ambushing attempts. Practical implications for sponsoring brands, potential ambushing brands and policy makers are discussed.
The image management function of sponsorship: a general theoretical framework
Kihan Kim, Patricia A. Stout and Yunjae Cheong, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 31, No. 1, 2012, pp. 85-111
A general framework to understand how sponsorship affects the image of the sponsor has been developed from the information-processing perspective.
A general framework to understand how sponsorship affects the image of the sponsor has been developed from the information-processing perspective. According to this framework, sponsorship information is processed in one of two relatively distinct modes of processing - holistic or analytic - depending on the amount of processing resources available to consumers. Each mode of processing, in turn, is theorised to play a significant role in influencing different components of the image of the sponsor. A set of research propositions is presented, along with a specific research agenda, and the implications of the proposed framework.
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