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Insights on using celebrity brand ambassadors
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A content analysis study of the use of celebrity endorsers in magazine advertising
George E. Belch and Michael A. Belch, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 32, No. 3, 2013, pp. 369-389
This paper presents the results of a content analysis study that examined the use of celebrity endorsers in magazine advertising.
This paper presents the results of a content analysis study that examined the use of celebrity endorsers in magazine advertising. Advertisements appearing in 37 different magazines representing eight major classification categories were analysed to gain insight into the prevalence of use of celebrity endorsers in magazine advertising. Only 10% of the magazine ads run during the time period analysed contained a celebrity, which is much lower than estimates of their use often reported in the media. The findings show that the use of celebrities varies by magazine type with their use being highest for sports and teen publications. The use of celebrities also varies by product/service category as does the type of celebrity utilised, such as athletes, actors/actresses, entertainers and supermodels. Celebrity use was based primarily on the source characteristics of popularity/likeability followed by physical attractiveness. Celebrity use based on expertise occurs primarily for athletic products.
For Better, for Worse? What to Do when Celebrity Endorsements Go Bad
François A. Carrillat, Alain d'Astous and Josianne Lazure, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 53, No. 1, 2013, pp. 15-30
This experimental study examined what is the optimal decision for a company whose brand is endorsed by a celebrity immersed in a scandal (revoking versus continuing the endorsement) as a function of brand/endorser fit (congruence versus incongruence) and of the veracity of the negative event created by the celebrity’s reaction (denying versus admitting the facts).
This experimental study examined what is the optimal decision for a company whose brand is endorsed by a celebrity immersed in a scandal (revoking versus continuing the endorsement) as a function of brand/endorser fit (congruence versus incongruence) and of the veracity of the negative event created by the celebrity’s reaction (denying versus admitting the facts). In the case of congruence, revoking the endorsement is suboptimal with respect to brand attitude and purchase intention. Furthermore, denying lowered the endorser’s trustworthiness which, in turn, hampered attitude and intention. Managerial and theoretical implications, as well as directions for further research, were also considered.
Communication using celebrities in the non-profit sector: determinants of its effectiveness
Maria del Mar Garcia de los Salmones, Rafael Dominguez and Angel Herrero, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 32, No. 1, 2013, pp. 101-119
Nowadays celebrity endorsement has become a popular marketing technique in the non-profit sector. However, there is still a degree of light and shade as regards the determinants of the effectiveness of this communication strategy.
Nowadays celebrity endorsement has become a popular marketing technique in the non-profit sector. However, there is still a degree of light and shade as regards the determinants of the effectiveness of this communication strategy. Taking into account the significant lack of studies in this particular field, the current research presents a causal model with nine hypotheses, which analyse the sequence of relationships that cover from the background of celebrity credibility, to the determinants of the attitude towards adverts and the intention to collaborate. We surveyed 329 adults, who rated a fictitious ad with a celebrity without perceived experience in the non-profit area. As a result, it is observed that the celebrity’s credibility depends on the fit perceived, the attribution of altruistic motivation, the celebrity image and the general attitude towards celebrity activism. Furthermore, it is found that a credible celebrity has a strong influence on the attitude towards the advert and, indirectly, on behavioural intentions.
Measuring celebrity singer image
Su-Jen Chuang and Cherng G. Ding, International Journal of Market Research, Vol. 55, No. 1, 2013, pp. 149-172
Celebrity singer worship transcends social hierarchies. The celebrity singer image is a construct including the facets of being professional, stylish, diverse and renowned, created and evoked in consumers’ minds to differentiate a brand and influence consumers’ brand preference.
Celebrity singer worship transcends social hierarchies. The celebrity singer image is a construct including the facets of being professional, stylish, diverse and renowned, created and evoked in consumers’ minds to differentiate a brand and influence consumers’ brand preference. However, there is no existing scale in the extant literature for measuring celebrity singer image. In this study, image-related theory and literature were reviewed, and a celebrity singer image scale developed based on the second-order structure with the first-order dimensions of expertise, design, versatility and fame. Reliability and construct validity were demonstrated for the scale obtained. The second-order celebrity singer image was hypothesised to influence several relational bonds – attachment, satisfaction, trust and commitment, and purchase intention. The hypotheses were all supported, achieving criterion-related validity. Managerial implications on building and enhancing celebrity singer image are specifically discussed.
The moderating influence of brand status and source confirmation on third-party endorsement effects in advertising
Alex Wang and Darrel D. Muehling, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 31, No. 3, 2012, pp. 605-622
Two studies were conducted to examine the effect that perceived brand status has on consumers’ responses to source confirmation of third-party advertising endorsements.
Two studies were conducted to examine the effect that perceived brand status has on consumers’ responses to source confirmation of third-party advertising endorsements. In Study 1, a 2 (ad exposure with opportunity to confirm the source of the endorsement vs ad exposure with no opportunity to confirm) by 2 (topdog brand vs underdog brand) factorial design was used to examine hypothesised effects on message believability and brand attitude. Results indicated that, for underdog brands, augmenting advertising strategies with publicity pieces (source confirmation) is an effective approach in enhancing advertising message believability and producing more favourable brand attitudes. On the other hand, this ad strategy was not shown to have similar added benefits for the topdog brand. Study 2 further examined these interactive effects, finding that, in an underdog brand condition, individuals reported higher levels of involvement with a publicity piece than with an advertisement. An opposite effect (i.e. greater ad involvement than publicity piece involvement) was observed for individuals in the topdog brand condition. Theoretical and managerial implications of the findings are discussed, and future research directions are offered.
The Economic Value of Celebrity Endorsements
Anita Elberse and Jeroen Verleun, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 52, No. 2, 2012, pp. 149-165
What is the pay-off to enlisting celebrity endorsers? Although effects on stock returns are relatively well documented, little is known about any impact on sales—arguably a metric of more direct importance to advertising practitioners.
What is the pay-off to enlisting celebrity endorsers? Although effects on stock returns are relatively well documented, little is known about any impact on sales—arguably a metric of more direct importance to advertising practitioners. This study of athlete endorsements finds there is a positive pay-off to a firm’s decision to sign an endorser, and that endorsements are associated with increasing sales in an absolute sense and relative to competing brands. Furthermore, sales and stock returns jump noticeably with each major achievement by the athlete. However, whereas stock-return effects are relatively constant, sales effects exhibit decreasing returns over time. Implications for practitioners are outlined.
Assessing Celebrity Endorsement Effects in China: A Consumer-Celebrity Relational Approach
Kineta Hung, Kimmy W. Chan and Caleb H. Tse, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 51, No. 4, 2011, pp. 608-623
Celebrity endorsement is a salient executional strategy in China, where national celebrities often endorse more than 20 brands.
Celebrity endorsement is a salient executional strategy in China, where national celebrities often endorse more than 20 brands. This paper adopts a relational perspective to examine this research issue. The relational perspective is driven by three core Chinese cultural values: collectivism, risk aversion, and power distance. The authors propose a model that postulates how celebrity-worship leads to value transfer that, in turn, affects brand purchase intent. Findings from a survey involving 1,030 respondents from a national panel of consumers, showed that consumer celebrity worship is a significant antecedent to endorser effects; over-endorsement by a celebrity is an important moderator; and the model is robust across both sports and entertainment celebrities.
How a presenter's perceived attractiveness affects persuasion for attractiveness-unrelated products
Sandra Praxmarer, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 30, No. 5, 2011, pp. 839-865
Contrary to the beauty match-up hypothesis, several studies report positive effects of a presenter's attractiveness for attractiveness-unrelated products.
Contrary to the beauty match-up hypothesis, several studies report positive effects of a presenter's attractiveness for attractiveness-unrelated products. This research demonstrates how, via which paths, the presenter's attractiveness affects persuasion for attractiveness-unrelated products. For a non-celebrity presenter the positive effect of attractiveness on persuasion is mediated by perceived presenter expertise, presenter trustworthiness, and liking of the advertisement. Previous studies could neither support the relevance of these paths unambiguously nor did they test whether or not perceived expertise, trustworthiness, and liking of the ad fully mediate the attractiveness effect. This study also considers receiver and presenter sex and receivers' product involvement. The results indicate that attractiveness affects persuasion positively regardless of whether the presenter and receiver are of the same or the opposite sex and regardless of whether receivers are characterised by low or high product involvement.
Source characteristics and advertising effectiveness: the roles of message processing motivation and product category knowledge
Cengiz Yilmaz, E. Eser Telci, Muzaffer Bodur and Tutku Eker Iscioglu, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 30, No. 5, 2011, pp. 889-914
The study examines the impact of source likeability and source credibility on the effectiveness of print advertisements.
The study examines the impact of source likeability and source credibility on the effectiveness of print advertisements. A theoretical model that depicts the impacts of source characteristics on (1) ad attitude, (2) brand attitude, and (3) willingness to purchase is investigated using data collected through a quasi-experimental design. In addition to direct impacts, the moderating role of message processing motivation (involvement) and product category knowledge in the relationships of interest are investigated via multi-group analyses. Findings indicate that the sequence of relationships between source characteristics, attitudinal responses and willingness to purchase may vary substantially across the four conditions characterised by high/low levels of processing motivation and product category knowledge.
The Ethics of Celebrity-Athlete Endorsement: What Happens When a Star Steps Out of Bounds?
Felicia M. Miller and Gene R. Laczniak, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 51, No. 3, 2011, pp. 499-510
Celebrity athletes are a mainstay of popular culture and an increasingly important part of the marketing ecosystem.
Celebrity athletes are a mainstay of popular culture and an increasingly important part of the marketing ecosystem. As product endorsers, they can influence brand attitudes and sales but also have broader societal implications for the firm. The recent string of bad behavior by celebrity athletes raises important ethical questions about firms that use the famous and infamous to endorse branded products. The conceptual framework presented in the current study provides a theoretical approach-based on virtue ethics-for evaluating the retention of tainted celebrity affiliates. This framework is applied to three well-known situations to examine the ethical implications of what initially were good choices for firms, their brands, and their consumers. The overarching goal of this article is to stimulate managers to think more deeply about the interconnections between their core company values, the athlete endorsers they select, and the ultimate effect of those decisions on their brands in the marketplace if things go wrong.
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