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Ethics: Why the game of marketing needs rules
Hugh Burkitt, Market Leader, Quarter 3, 2012, pp. 38-40
Rules in a free market economy are difficult to frame to be both fair and effective, but they are clearly necessary.
Rules in a free market economy are difficult to frame to be both fair and effective, but they are clearly necessary. How far the rules of marketing should go to protect competition and consumers will cause endless debate, and the rules will evolve over time as society's attitudes change. We need only look at 1950s ads proclaiming: "More doctors smoke Camels than any other cigarette" and "For a better start in life, start cola earlier" to see how much social attitudes to what is and isn't considered acceptable have changed over the decades. Looking forward, marketers will need to be acutely aware of changing attitudes in society, the scientific truth about discoveries on health, and increasingly the need for all of us to lead more sustainable lifestyles.
Social responsibility: Out-behaving the competition
David Jones, Market Leader, Quarter 3, 2012, pp. 31-33
The rapid evolution of social media means brands and companies operate in an ever-changing landscape.
The rapid evolution of social media means brands and companies operate in an ever-changing landscape. They face unprecedented pressure to be on their best behaviour in every aspect, from customer service to social responsibility. Marketing has a crucial role to fulfil as the gatekeeper of consumer opinion in this volatile environment, where reality must take precedence over image, consumers must be listened to and purpose must come before profits.
Mythbuster: The old still has a value
Les Binet and Sarah Carter, Admap, May 2012, pp. 9-9
Les Binet and Sarah Carter contend that most people who work in advertising are young, which means many don't have a knowledge of anything that happened beyond the immediate past, and those that do won't mention it in case they appear old.
Les Binet and Sarah Carter contend that most people who work in advertising are young, which means many don't have a knowledge of anything that happened beyond the immediate past, and those that do won't mention it in case they appear old. This has resulted in an industry that is obsessed with what's new and what's changing. Binet and Carter believe that this matters because it stops advertising from learning from the past - old data is routinely binned and old case studies forgotten. And the obsession with what's changing distracts us from what's not changing.
The impact of the lost decade on advertising in Japan: a grounded theory approach
Shintaro Okazaki and Barbara Mueller, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 30, No. 2, 2011, pp. 205-232
This study describes the perceptions of Japanese advertising professionals regarding the evolution of advertising planning and execution over a three-decade period.
This study describes the perceptions of Japanese advertising professionals regarding the evolution of advertising planning and execution over a three-decade period. Senior management and creatives from 18 of Japan’s top agencies participated in extensive in-person interviews to compare the traditional nature of Japanese advertising with that of the US, and to explore factors that may have caused a shift in the style of Japanese advertising since the 1980s ‘bubble economy’. A grounded theory approach was utilised as an interpretive methodology. The study finds that the dramatic recession experienced during Japan’s ‘lost decade’ indeed had a strong influence on the nature of Japanese advertising. Along with additional factors such as changes in the media landscape and the adoption of American-born audience measures, economic uncertainty during the 1990s pushed adverting agencies towards a more direct and persuasive selling approach. This trend contrasts sharply with a general societal shift from materialist to post-materialist values in Japan during this period.
The Interactive Web: Toward a New Discipline
Hairong Li, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 51, No. 1, 2011, 50th Anniversary Supplement, pp. 13-26
This paper reviews the most significant studies of the Web and interactive advertising that have been published in the Journal of Advertising Research over the past 15 years.
This paper reviews the most significant studies of the Web and interactive advertising that have been published in the Journal of Advertising Research over the past 15 years. These studies have covered a wide range of issues and, along with many articles in other advertising journals, they have contributed to the formation of a new discipline of interactive advertising, which is transforming the advertising business and education around the world. These studies are exemplary and may inspire new breakthrough studies of interactive advertising in the years to come.
The March to Reliable Metrics: A Half-Century of Coming Closer to the Truth
Edith G. Smit and Peter C. Neijens, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 51, No. 1, 2011, 50th Anniversary Supplement, pp. 124-135
Reach and frequency are key concepts advertisers face when selecting media for their campaigns. Around the world, the advertising industry relies on audience research for insights into how different media outlets perform on these key concepts.
Reach and frequency are key concepts advertisers face when selecting media for their campaigns. Around the world, the advertising industry relies on audience research for insights into how different media outlets perform on these key concepts. In this contribution, the authors discuss the developments in audience research in three themes: (syndicated) audience research into readership of print media, ratings of television, and Internet, studies on the reach of individual advertisements, studies on the quality of reach, in particular the influence of the media context. The authors conclude with some suggestions: the need for cross-media data, the need for hybrid data collection that includes electronic and passive measurement of media use and the need for new metrics, such as measures of implicit processing of sponsored media content and measures of consumer generated brand communications.
The Tension between Strategy and Execution: Challenges for International Advertising Research - Globalization is Much More Than Universal Branding
John B. Ford, Barbara Mueller and Charles R. Taylor; Insights from Nigel Hollis, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 51, No. 1, 2011, 50th Anniversary Supplement, pp. 27-41
The primary "international advertising" topic over the past five decades is the question of whether, and to what degree, advertising can and should be standardized.
The primary "international advertising" topic over the past five decades is the question of whether, and to what degree, advertising can and should be standardized. This article begins with a discussion of the cumulative findings of this stream of research, followed by a look at major theories that have been applied to international advertising research, with a special focus on the application of culture’s use as a conceptual basis for advertising studies. An exploration of the recent trend toward considering advertising in the context of global branding strategies is followed by a discussion of methodological issues in international advertising research, focusing on problems that have been identified and "best practices" for researchers in overcoming these problems.
Instant Innovation: From Zero to Full Speed in Fifteen Years - How Online Offerings Have Reshaped Marketing Research
Colin Campbell, Michael Parent and Kirk Plangger; Insights from Gian M. Fulgoni, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 51, No. 1, 2011, 50th Anniversary Supplement, pp. 72-86
This paper considers the contributions of the Journal of Advertising Research to online research. The authors first identify those articles that contributed to the cumulative knowledge in this domain.
This paper considers the contributions of the Journal of Advertising Research to online research. The authors first identify those articles that contributed to the cumulative knowledge in this domain. A scoping review of the 1,930 papers published in the Journal yielded 126 papers that dealt with online research. Of these, 14 explicitly addressed issues with (and advantages of) online research. The authors summarize their findings, concluding that the Journal’s foresight in this field has positioned it well for understanding and exploiting the Internet. The authors further posit that the cumulative tradition built will be pivotal in the field’s evolution.
The Evolution of Services Advertising in a Services-Driven National Economy: An Analysis of Progress and Missed Opportunities
Marla B. Royne Stafford, Tim Reilly, Stephen J. Grove and Les Carlson; Insights from Rishi Bhandari and John Copeland, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 51, No. 1, 2011, 50th Anniversary Supplement, pp. 136-152
With services continuing to dominate the gross domestic product, the marketing and advertising of services remain a core issue in the discipline.
With services continuing to dominate the gross domestic product, the marketing and advertising of services remain a core issue in the discipline. Because of their generally intangible nature, however, services often face unique challenges in developing effective and appropriate advertising strategies. Given the importance of promotional decisions to service practitioners, an assessment of the current literature guiding services-advertising decisions is important. In 1997, Carolyn Tripp published an overview of the services-advertising literature covering a 15-year period corresponding to services-marketing’s emergence and early development. Her overall conclusion was that the services-advertising literature lagged behind the services-marketing field in general. As a result, she proposed several specific areas that needed attention and suggestions for enhancing the quality of research on services advertising. In this paper, we provide an update to this research by identifying, classifying, and analyzing articles on services advertising that have been published since 1997. Although a number of services-advertising articles seem to have heeded Tripp’s various concerns, there is still much to be done on the topic. Hence, we provide additional direction for needed areas of research in the area of services advertising.
From Silos to Synergy: A Fifty-year Review of Cross-media Research Shows Synergy Has Yet to Achieve its Full Potential
Henry Assael, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 51, No. 1, 2011, 50th Anniversary Supplement, pp. 42-48
Before the advent of the Internet, media planning focused on individual media and used exposure - opportunity to see - as the criterion of effectiveness.
Before the advent of the Internet, media planning focused on individual media and used exposure - opportunity to see - as the criterion of effectiveness. Since then, the focus has shifted to the interaction between media (particularly on- and offline media) with a shift in emphasis to opportunity to act and to sales and ROI measures of effectiveness. This article traces the move from silos to synergy over a 50-year period, much of it reported in the Journal of Advertising Research. After 1994, the concept of synergy came to be increasingly identified with interactive media effects. Most notably, a few researchers saw the importance of tying cross-media effects to sales and ROI because, as one study found, media allocation criteria differ under conditions of synergy compared to the traditional silo framework for budgetary decisions. Although much has been accomplished as described herein, the promise of cross-media research has yet to be achieved. Interactive media studies have tended to focus on limited paired media comparisons. Key areas of synergistic effects such as the distinction between sequential and simultaneous media exposure have yet to be explored. And only two studies could be cited that sought to utilize cross-media effects to establish media allocation criteria based on the association of media interactions to ROI. Of most importance is the lack of reliable measures of cross-media effects. Ideally, single-source systems would measure multi-media exposure and purchase behavior for the same respondent. The data burden placed on respondents, however, makes such systems difficult to implement. The technology resulting in the proliferation of media has outstripped the means to measure cross-media effectiveness. Until adequate measures of interactive media effects are developed, cross-media research will not reach its full potential.
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