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Liquor advertising and consumption in the United States: 1971-2008
Gary B. Wilcox, KyungOk Kacy Kim and Heather M. Schulz, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 31, No. 4, 2012, pp. 819-834
Much of the confrontational efforts in the last four decades regarding the reduction of alcohol consumption have focused on the advertising of alcohol beverages.
Much of the confrontational efforts in the last four decades regarding the reduction of alcohol consumption have focused on the advertising of alcohol beverages. Critics of alcohol beverage advertising argue that the amount and substance of the alcohol advertising results in increased consumption of those beverages. A good deal of the research that supports this viewpoint utilises either cross-sectional data or controlled experiments, and identifies advertising as one of the possible factors influencing alcohol consumption. Using time-series analyses, this manuscript examines the relationship between distilled spirits advertising expenditures and consumption in the US from 1971 to 2008 on an aggregate and brand level. This four-decade period is especially interesting because it includes a decade in which the spirits industry ended a voluntary ban of advertising on electronic media.
Comments: Advertising in Australia: the big issues/Qualitative research rules
Michael Harker, Debra Harker and John R Rossiter, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 27, No. 5, 2008, pp. 909-919
This Comments section includes two essays. The first of these is by Debra and Michael Harker from the University of the Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Australia.
This Comments section includes two essays. The first of these is by Debra and Michael Harker from the University of the Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Australia. They discuss issues being faced by advertisers in Australia, with food and alcohol advertising a highly problematic area. They are encouraged by a series of advances being made by teams of Australian scholars and practitioners pooling their resources and ideas to shed light on these social issues and to not only raise awareness of these issues, but to shed light on ways to effectively combat these problems. The other essay, by John Rossiter, at the University of Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia, addresses the issue of the fundamental gap that appears to exist in advertising between the importance and role of qualitative and quantitative research in addressingadvertising theory and practice. He tackles this difficult issue with a commentary on the value of qualitative research and its synergistic effect upon quantitative research. Again the benefit is from the combining of the techniques rather than looking at one as opposed to the other.
Viewpoint: UK alcohol policy and market research: media debates and methodological differences
Chris Hackley, International Journal of Market Research, Vol. 50, No. 4, 2008, pp. 429-431
In this Viewpoint article, Chris Hackley describes some of the important consequences and issues for the industry when the media are faced with market research commissioned from different perspectiveson a high-profile topic – alcoholic drink marketing and consumption behaviour in the UK.
In this Viewpoint article, Chris Hackley describes some of the important consequences and issues for the industry when the media are faced with market research commissioned from different perspectiveson a high-profile topic – alcoholic drink marketing and consumption behaviour in the UK. He discusses the conflicting role of research in informing the debate on the subject, and argues that engaging with young people – and the media – using research is a complicated problem. Diageo's recent advertising campaign marks one recent attempt by a advertiser to try and help in tackling the problem, but much more work still needs to be done.
Comments - Alcohol advertising and youth
John B Ford, Erica Weintraub Austin and Stacey J.T. Hust, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 25, No. 4, 2006
Two researchers examine the controversial issue of the effects of alcohol advertising on children and suggest areas for future study.
Two researchers examine the controversial issue of the effects of alcohol advertising on children and suggest areas for future study. Erica Weintraub Austin focuses on media literacy programs and their potential to protect the young against what she describes as the powerful allure of alcohol advertisements. Stacey Hust argues for research to examine whether alcohol advertising venues, including new mechanisms such as games, videos and web downloads, can impact upon the beliefs and behaviour of young people with regard to alcohol consumption.
What’s changed? Does beer advertising affect consumption in the United States?
Dr Gary B Wilcox and Harshavardhan Gangadharbatla, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 25, No. 1, 2006, pp. 35-50
Beer consumption is predominantly male in the U.S. and has increased only slightly since the 1970’s.
Beer consumption is predominantly male in the U.S. and has increased only slightly since the 1970’s. Most studies have found only weak advertising effects on aggregate alcohol expenditures but recognise positive associations with selective demand across brands and product categories. A comprehensive econometric model assessing this period revealed small but positive relationships with radio and cable advertising and per capita consumption as well as, counter-intuitively, warning labels on products.
Advertising and alchohol consumption in the UK
Sally Dickerson and Jane Dorsett, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 23, No. 2, 2004, pp. 149-171
The human and economic cost of alcohol misuse in the UK is high. Alcohol advertising has been criticised because of its presumed impact on alcohol consumption.
The human and economic cost of alcohol misuse in the UK is high. Alcohol advertising has been criticised because of its presumed impact on alcohol consumption. This two-part investigation considers possible reasons for alcohol consumption in the UK. In the first section, the authors examine the hypotheses that advertising increases market size and that alcohol advertising drives overall consumption. In the second section, the authors identify and quantify the key correlates of alcohol consumption in the UK. They consider the claim that alcohol advertising is directed at driving consumption among younger drinkers by utilising the AlcoVision survey and building separate econometric models for young people aged 18-24 and those over 25. For both age groups, economic confidence and seasonality are identified as key correlates of consumption. Other correlates are dependent on age. Consumption among the 18-24 age group is correlated with on-trade promotions and the increasing trend for in-home drinking. Consumption among people over 25 is related to pricing issues, from both competing categories and the relative price of alcohol. No statistical relationship between alcohol advertising and consumption was found for either age group.
Do Advertising Bans Work? An International Comparison
D J Young and J P Nelson, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 20, No. 3, 2001
Advertising bans can increase or decrease alcohol consumption due to effects on beverage choice, price competition, and substitution by producers towards non-banned media.
Advertising bans can increase or decrease alcohol consumption due to effects on beverage choice, price competition, and substitution by producers towards non-banned media. We study bans on broadcast advertising in 17 OECD countries for the years 1977 to 1995, in relation to per capita alcohol consumption, liver cirrhosis mortality and motor vehicle fatalities. The results indicate that advertising bans in OECD countries have not decreased alcohol consumption or alcohol abuse.
Can alcohol misuse be reduced by banning advertising
Tim Ambler, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 15, No. 2, 1996
This article discusses the potential effects of an advertising ban on alcohol use and misuse. It examines the premises that advertising causes alcohol misuse and that an advertising ban would reduce alcohol misuse.
This article discusses the potential effects of an advertising ban on alcohol use and misuse. It examines the premises that advertising causes alcohol misuse and that an advertising ban would reduce alcohol misuse. Two theories of how advertising affects alcohol consumption are introduced and discussed. The 'strong' theory claims that since misuse is assumed to be proportional to use, advertising increases alcohol consumption and therefore misuse. The 'weak' theory is based on the assumption that advertising is one of many social stimuli that affect human behaviour, and if removed or seen only in negative contexts would consequently reduce alcohol misuse. Facts and published research are reviewed and the article concludes that there is little support for either theory.
The influence of advertising on alcohol consumption: a literature review and an econometric analysis of four European nations
C Scheraga and J E Calfee, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 13, No. 4, 1994
Econometric and laboratory research in the US, Canada and the UK have not revealed advertising to have a significant effect on alcohol consumption.
Econometric and laboratory research in the US, Canada and the UK have not revealed advertising to have a significant effect on alcohol consumption. The same is true of survey research, which confirms the powerful role of social factors such as the attitudes and behaviour of parents and peers. We present an econometric analysis of the alcoholic beverage markets of France, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden (where alcohol advertising has been prohibited since 1979), as well as a new analysis of the UK market. The results provide further support for the view that advertising does not have a substantial effect on alcohol sales. The data also show that social forces other than prices and income were bringing about a strong reduction in demand for alcoholic beverages during the 1970s and 1980s, and that advertising did nothing to ward off this trend.
Advertising and alcoholic drink demand in the UK: some further Rotterdam model estimates
Dr Martyn Duffy, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 9, No. 3, 1990
In this paper, Duffy presents estimates of the effect of advertising on alcoholic drink demand in the UK.
In this paper, Duffy presents estimates of the effect of advertising on alcoholic drink demand in the UK. Although the reported estimates of the advertising elasticities are very small, it might be thought that this could be a result of certain deficiencies in the two studies. For example, annual data are used by both authors and this may be the least suitable frequency at which to detect advertising effects. This paper reviews the effects upon re-estimates of the advertising elasticities of changes in various implicit assumptions underlying the study. In this sensitivity analysis it is found that the results obtained cast even greater doubts than ever held before upon the view that the marked expansion in alcoholic drink consumption since World War II owes anything at all to total drink advertising.
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