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Which Broadcast Medium Better Drives Engagement? Measuring the Powers of Radio and Television with Electromyography and Skin-Conductance Measurements
James Peacock, Scott Purvis and Richard L. Hazlett, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 51, No. 4, 2011, pp. 578-585
This study compared the ability of radio and television advertisements to generate emotional responses and engage consumers.
This study compared the ability of radio and television advertisements to generate emotional responses and engage consumers. It did so using advanced physiological methods that measure emotional activation in ways that do not require verbal responses. Sixteen different real advertising campaigns were evaluated with 80 consumers watching television and 80 listening to radio programming with embedded commercials. Radio and television evoked positive emotion about equally, but television advertising generated a slightly higher negative emotional reaction. Positive emotion and brand recall were found to be positively correlated, with the relationship stronger for radio than for television.
Mixing advertising and editorial content in radio programmes: Appreciation and recall of brand placements versus commercials
Eva A. van Reijmersdal, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 30, No. 3, 2011, pp. 425-446
Although the literature on brand placement is rapidly evolving, no studies thus far have focused on radio brand placement or on the effects of the combination of brand placement and commercials.
Although the literature on brand placement is rapidly evolving, no studies thus far have focused on radio brand placement or on the effects of the combination of brand placement and commercials. Therefore, the present experiment (N = 153) focused on the effects of radio brand placement on liking, credibility and brand recall. In addition, the effects of the combination of brand placement and a commercial were studied. As predicted based on source credibility and intentional exposure theory, the results showed that brand placement is more liked and perceived as more credible than commercials, and that exposure to brand placement has a stronger effect on brand recall. A combination of brand placement and a commercial evokes higher brand recall than exposure to a commercial alone. However, there were no synergy effects for the combination of brand placement and a commercial. Underlying mechanisms were tested, showing the importance of format credibility in brand placement effects.
How Clutter Affects Advertising Effectiveness
Peter Hammer, Erica Riebe, and Rachel Kennedy, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 49, No. 2, June 2009, pp. 159-163
This paper reports from a range of data sets (including four new ones, described) on how different levels of ad clutter in TV and radio affects how advertising works.
This paper reports from a range of data sets (including four new ones, described) on how different levels of ad clutter in TV and radio affects how advertising works. Advertising avoidance is similar in low and high clutter environments, so when there is more clutter, audiences really do see more advertisements. Less clutter does not result in better brand identification, although audiences remember more of what they saw. Advertisements recalled in high clutter are generally of better quality and are more likeable on average: people remember what they liked. Overall, therefore, the impact of clutter is not large, especially when compared to creative elements of executions. From an issue of JAR devoted to `empirical generalisations’: the papers were first presented at a conference at the Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania in December 2008.
Music-brand congruency in high and low-cognition radio advertising
Anne M. Lavack, Mrugank V. Thakor and Ingrid Bottausci, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 27, No. 4, 2008, pp. 549-568
Many radio commercials use background music to accompany a message. This research examines how brand-congruent music (i.e.
Many radio commercials use background music to accompany a message. This research examines how brand-congruent music (i.e. music that ‘fits’ the brand) will affect ‘Attitude towards the Ad’ (AAd) and ‘Attitude towards the Brand’ (ABrand), specifically when used with different types of ad copy that are more or less demanding of cognitive resources (high-cognition vs low-cognition advertising copy). In high-cognition ads, congruent music results in a more positive AAd and ABrand compared to incongruent music or no music. However, this effect is not found with low-cognition ads, where AAd (and ABrand) are similar for all three conditions of congruent music, incongruent music and no music.
The effects of brand experience and an advertisement’s disclaimer speed on purchase: speak slowly or carry a big brand
Kenneth C. Herbst and David Allan, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 25, No. 2, 2006, pp. 213-221
Radio advertising is full of disclaimers which are intended to give consumers information and to meet legal compliance, but little research has been carried out into their effect on purchasing.
Radio advertising is full of disclaimers which are intended to give consumers information and to meet legal compliance, but little research has been carried out into their effect on purchasing. This paper suggests that if a product is new, then the speed with which the disclaimer is read is important. A slow disclaimer (read in six seconds) engenders significantly more purchasing than a fast disclaimer. However, if a product is well known, then the disclaimer speed matters less.
Recall of radio advertising in low and high advertising clutter formats
Erica Riebe and John Dawes, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 25, No. 1, 2006, pp. 71-86
This study investigated the relationship between radio advertising clutter and advertising recall using the Australian radio market as a test case.
This study investigated the relationship between radio advertising clutter and advertising recall using the Australian radio market as a test case. The term ‘clutter’ is defined here as a greater number of advertisements in a given time period. The study used an experimental design in which certain groups of participants were exposed to a radio format with high advertising clutter, while others were exposed to a low-clutter format. The ‘low-clutter’ respondents recalled as many ads on average as the ‘high-clutter’ respondents. Since the low-clutter respondents were exposed to far fewer ads, the proportion of ads recalled by the low-clutter respondents was more than double that of the high-clutter respondents, and this effect was consistent across multiple recall measures. That is, the low-clutter participants were twice as likely to recall a particular advertisement among those ads to which they were exposed. They were also twice as likely to correctly recall the product category the advertisement was for, and were twice as likely to correctly identify the advertised brand. In addition, the respondents exposed to a low-clutter advertising environment showed almost three times greater prompted advertising recognition. The study also tested the relationship between position in the advertising block and the recall of the ad. Ads that were placed at the start and end of large blocks of ads were better recalled than ads in the centre of such large blocks. This effect was comparatively stronger for ads at the start of a block and weaker for ads at the end of a block. These results suggest that low-clutter stations are justified in charging a price premium. Exactly how much this premium should be depends largely upon the measure of effectiveness used, but based on advertising recall the price premium could be double. More research is needed to establish a suitable premium and to extend the findings of this study into a real-life radio listening environment.
Emotional or informative? Creative or boring? The effectiveness of different types of radio commercial
Wim Jannsens and Patrick De Pelsmacker, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 24, No. 3, 2005, pp. 373-394
On the basis of 17 characteristics of 100 Belgian radio commercials (amount of information and brand quotes, humour, emotionality, eroticism, music, actionimpulse, and so on), three types of radio spot were identified: image-dominant and emotional/creative spots, information-dominant and emotional/creative spots, and information-dominant and non-emotional/not creative spots.
On the basis of 17 characteristics of 100 Belgian radio commercials (amount of information and brand quotes, humour, emotionality, eroticism, music, actionimpulse, and so on), three types of radio spot were identified: image-dominant and emotional/creative spots, information-dominant and emotional/creative spots, and information-dominant and non-emotional/not creative spots. The affective and cognitive attitudes towards each commercial, as well as attitudes towards the brands and purchase intentions, were measured in a sample of 100 respondents. Overall, the information-dominant, emotional/creative type of commercial resulted in the most positive attitudes towards ads and brands. The other two types of ad performed less well. The components of the attitude towards the ads were strongly correlated with the attitude towards the brands. In particular, the affective reactions and, to a lesser extent, the perceived degree of informativeness of an ad significantly explained attitude towards the brand.
The influence of media on advertising effectiveness a comparison of internet, posters and radio
Einar Breivik and Herbjørn Nysveen, International Journal of Market Research, Vol. 47, No. 4, 2005, pp. 381-404
This study compares the effectiveness of internet advertisements (pop-ups), print advertisements (posters) and radio advertisements for an airline ticket and for a weekend stay at a hotel.
This study compares the effectiveness of internet advertisements (pop-ups), print advertisements (posters) and radio advertisements for an airline ticket and for a weekend stay at a hotel. The advertisement copies were developed specifically for this study by a professional agency. Advertisements were developed to utilise specific medium characteristics, and the control of advertisement content was attained through the brief. Furthermore, the relative quality of the advertisements was used as a covariate in the analysis of media effects. The test situation reflected a high elaboration condition in that the respondents were asked to assess presented ads on various outcome variables. The results indicate that both advertising media and the relative quality of the advertisements presented in the various media influence the effectiveness of the advertisements. Internet and posters were found to be more effective advertising media than radio.
What does the consumer think? IRA - a media research tool understanding and programming radio
Fabio Mariano, ESOMAR, Radio Conference, Montreal, June 2005
Poorly used by advertisers in Brazil, radio is undergoing a period of rebirth in the United States and Europe.
Poorly used by advertisers in Brazil, radio is undergoing a period of rebirth in the United States and Europe. In Brazil some new research tools have appeared and the medium is going through a process of professionalization. This study examines radio under the light of the listener and presents a research tool that contributes to the understanding of the significance of this medium and its relationship with the consumer.
Measuring radio’s real ROI
James Peacock and Mary Bennett, ESOMAR, Radio Conference, Montreal, June 2005
This paper is based on a project which sought to assess radio's Return on Investment (ROI) as an advertising medium.
This paper is based on a project which sought to assess radio's Return on Investment (ROI) as an advertising medium. Using IRI's BehaviorScan capability, the study was based on tests carried out in four markets, in which normal TV ads were replaced with public service announcements in half of the households involved. The study found that radio ads can operate as effectively as their television counterparts and work especially well when linked to other forms of media, whilst also delivering in terms of cost. Some implications of these conclusions are also discussed.
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