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Split-Second Recognition: What Makes Outdoor Advertising Work?
Lex van Meurs and Mandy Aristoff, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 49, No. 1, Mar 2009, pp. 82-92
CBS Outdoor used a tachistoscope to determine how long it takes to recognize the brand/product advertised in 187 outdoor posters in the Netherlands.
CBS Outdoor used a tachistoscope to determine how long it takes to recognize the brand/product advertised in 187 outdoor posters in the Netherlands. Additionally, CBS Outdoor measured the creative appeal of these advertisements. Using 80 content and format variables, an explanatory model was developed to measure creative appeal and brand/product recognition. Some preliminary findings: Clear branding and the inclusion of new-product information enhance product recognition.; Large amounts of text and pictures of people delay product recognition; Lengthy, large headlines, information cues, humor, and images of women delay brand recognition; Short headlines, a somewhat longer body text, and a product shot enhance the creative appeal of posters; Specifying a brand name in the headline or providing price information reduces appeal.
The influence of media on advertising effectiveness a comparison of internet, posters and radio
Einar Breivik and Herbjørn Nysveen, International Journal of Market Research, Vol. 47, No. 4, 2005, pp. 381-404
This study compares the effectiveness of internet advertisements (pop-ups), print advertisements (posters) and radio advertisements for an airline ticket and for a weekend stay at a hotel.
This study compares the effectiveness of internet advertisements (pop-ups), print advertisements (posters) and radio advertisements for an airline ticket and for a weekend stay at a hotel. The advertisement copies were developed specifically for this study by a professional agency. Advertisements were developed to utilise specific medium characteristics, and the control of advertisement content was attained through the brief. Furthermore, the relative quality of the advertisements was used as a covariate in the analysis of media effects. The test situation reflected a high elaboration condition in that the respondents were asked to assess presented ads on various outcome variables. The results indicate that both advertising media and the relative quality of the advertisements presented in the various media influence the effectiveness of the advertisements. Internet and posters were found to be more effective advertising media than radio.
The creative heresy in audience measurement
Erwin Ephron and Joseph C. Philport, ESOMAR, Outdoor/OOH Conference, Montreal, June 2005
This paper deals with the interesting question of whether some measure of creative effect should be included as a variable for calculating the size of the audience likely to see an outdoor display.
This paper deals with the interesting question of whether some measure of creative effect should be included as a variable for calculating the size of the audience likely to see an outdoor display. The authors believe it should be included, and that “noticeability” is the best candidate. They argue not just that Outdoor is unique, but that with VAI, it is ahead of the curve in audience measurement and other media will have to soon follow.
A cost-effective way for testing outdoor creatives
Andraz Zorko, ESOMAR, Outdoor/OOH Conference, Montreal, June 2005
The paper describes an analysis of outdoor creatives and its effect on aided recall of the outdoor campaign.
The paper describes an analysis of outdoor creatives and its effect on aided recall of the outdoor campaign. We have analysed 116 outdoor campaigns. For each of the campaigns the following data were available: a photo of the poster, number of sites, site quality, the duration of the campaign and aided recall. We have evaluated every poster’s creative solution according to the eight criteria that are necessary in order for an outdoor campaign to be effective. The data were then analysed with the use of correlation and regression analysis. A predictive model was established and tested to be used as a cost effective way for an outdoor creative pre-test.
Outdoor advertising recall. A comparison of newer technology and traditional billboards
Renita Coleman and Anne Cunningham, ESOMAR, Online and Outdoor Conference, Geneva, June 2004
Much of the academic research of outdoor advertising recall predates the industry's many technological advances.
Much of the academic research of outdoor advertising recall predates the industry's many technological advances. This study updates past research and adds to our understanding of how new technology such as the 'smartboards' affect consumers' recall of outdoor messages. This study finds that the newest technology, the smartboard, produced the lowest level of aided recall. Two related factors, consistency and repetition of the message, may account for these findings. Recall of the new technology formats may be related to repetition insofar as the smartboard rotates at eight-second intervals multiple advertisers, such that each is likely to have fewer exposures thus failing to achieve wear-in, while the tri-vision boards repeat multiple messages for one advertiser, reducing the chance of early wear-out.
Recognized in a split second. Effectiveness of outdoor posters
Mandy Klerkx and Lex van Meurs, ESOMAR, Online and Outdoor Conference, Geneva, June 2004
Since 1992 Viacom Outdoor in the Netherlands has tested the time it takes for the product and brand on outdoor advertising posters to be recognised.
Since 1992 Viacom Outdoor in the Netherlands has tested the time it takes for the product and brand on outdoor advertising posters to be recognised. The fieldwork was carried out by Inter/View and, later, Intomart Gfk. Brand Recognition and Product Recognition are measured using a tachistoscope, which projects a real size image of the poster in flashes ranging from 0.04 seconds to a full second. In a content analysis of 187 tested posters carried out by the University of Amsterdam, 80 content and format variables were measured and used in a multivariate analysis to explain Brand Recognition and Product Recognition. The speed of Product Recognition is increased by placement of the brand name, the presence of new product information and the use of pack shots. Product Recognition is slowed down by large amounts of text or different colours on the poster and pictures of people (especially those that appear to make eye contact). The use of a pack shot and the inclusion of the brand name in the headline, preferably in a large font, and in the copy text enhances the speed of Brand Recognition. Large and long headlines should be avoided. Information cues, the use of humour and pictures of women delay Brand Recognition.
Evaluating the ROI of radio and billboards
Rick Abens and Brian Cusick, ESOMAR, Media Mix Audience Measurement, LA, June 2003
This paper reviews an analysis done on a billboard and radio advertising campaign in the fast moving consumer goods industry.
This paper reviews an analysis done on a billboard and radio advertising campaign in the fast moving consumer goods industry. The analysis uses multivariate regression to quantify the Return On Investment from advertising. The findings indicate that the advertising program as a whole provided a return slightly below that of the average marketing alternative for this brand. However, the return on billboards alone was extremely high. Additional focus is also placed on the importance of the working relationship between the analytical provider and the client.
Business perceptions of the role of billboards in the U.S. economy
George R. Franke and Charles R. Taylor, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 43, No. 2, June 2003, pp. 150-161
Despite the longstanding regulatory debate over outdoor advertising, only a limited number of academic studies have explored why firms use the medium.
Despite the longstanding regulatory debate over outdoor advertising, only a limited number of academic studies have explored why firms use the medium. To give insight on several issues pertaining to the outdoor advertising controversy, this article presents findings from a national survey of billboard users and nonusers. Users believe that billboards have unique advantages that are not offered by other media. Thus, they have more positive views than nonusers of billboards' ability to communicate information at an affordable cost, attract new customers, and reach a targeted local area. Users also believe that billboards serve a different function than on-premise signs, and that other media are poor substitutes for billboards. Unlike nonusers, a majority of billboard users indicate that their company would lose sales if billboards were banned. Small businesses, travel-related businesses, and heavier users of billboards predict a sales decline of approximately 20 percent on average.
Improving the Effectiveness of Outdoor Advertising: Lessons from a study of 282 campaigns
Mukesh Bhargava, Naveen Donthu and Rosanne Caron, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 34, No. 2, March/April 1994
Describes a review of 282 outdoor advertising campaigns between 1978 and 1991, using recall scores as the key measure of effectiveness.
Describes a review of 282 outdoor advertising campaigns between 1978 and 1991, using recall scores as the key measure of effectiveness. Previous studies reviewed. Results: considerable variation in recall scores; these were related to various explanatory variables. Sample selection procedures were not significant. Marketing variables (e.g. price, advertiser awareness) were significant, indicating the need to control for these. Media type and weight variables explained about 20% of the variation. Of execution variables, benefit communication and use of humour were positively related to recall, number of concepts negatively. Of variables measuring illustration, only one (use of photograph or artwork) was significantly related to recall - a surprising finding compared with print media. Several text-related variables were significant, including copy length (negative) and legibility. Implications for improving outdoor creative treatment discussed.
Factors Influencing Recall of Outdoor Advertising
Naveen Donthu, Joseph Cherian and Mukesh Bhargava, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 33, No. 3, May/June 1993
Describes a study to identify and quantify various factors that influence the recall of outdoor advertising.
Describes a study to identify and quantify various factors that influence the recall of outdoor advertising. Previous U.S. evidence summarised. Variables included location, position, colour, number of words, attention to posters, involvement with the product, attitudes to advertising. All the advertising variables affected recall, both aided and unaided. Implications for improving poster effectiveness discussed.
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