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The impact of the lost decade on advertising in Japan: a grounded theory approach
Shintaro Okazaki and Barbara Mueller, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 30, No. 2, 2011, pp. 205-232
This study describes the perceptions of Japanese advertising professionals regarding the evolution of advertising planning and execution over a three-decade period.
This study describes the perceptions of Japanese advertising professionals regarding the evolution of advertising planning and execution over a three-decade period. Senior management and creatives from 18 of Japan’s top agencies participated in extensive in-person interviews to compare the traditional nature of Japanese advertising with that of the US, and to explore factors that may have caused a shift in the style of Japanese advertising since the 1980s ‘bubble economy’. A grounded theory approach was utilised as an interpretive methodology. The study finds that the dramatic recession experienced during Japan’s ‘lost decade’ indeed had a strong influence on the nature of Japanese advertising. Along with additional factors such as changes in the media landscape and the adoption of American-born audience measures, economic uncertainty during the 1990s pushed adverting agencies towards a more direct and persuasive selling approach. This trend contrasts sharply with a general societal shift from materialist to post-materialist values in Japan during this period.
Time series analysis of consumers' reaction to economic recession
Max Kilger and Ceril Shagrin, ARF Experiential Learning, Re:Think conference, 2010
This paper seeks to provide some insight into how US consumer behaviour has changed during the recession, with a particular focus on the idea that Hispanics and non-Hispanics have been affected differently.
This paper seeks to provide some insight into how US consumer behaviour has changed during the recession, with a particular focus on the idea that Hispanics and non-Hispanics have been affected differently. Using figures from the Experian Simmons DataStream, the authors suggest that Hispanics emerge with a more optimistic financial outlook, possibly because, pre-recession, they were less likely to be burdened with mortgages and new car loans. They also used data to illustrate marketplace movement associated with advertising campaigns and report that it may alo be used in the future for forecasting purposes.
Pulse on the economy: Using social media to understand today's shopper behaviour
Christina Engelhardt and Larisa Mats, ARF Experiential Learning, Re:Think conference, 2010
This paper discusses how social listening can help brands gain consumer insights. It reports on research carried out by Kantar Media affiliate Cymfony for Kraft Foods to learn how American consumers' grocery shopping behaviour was being affected by the recession.
This paper discusses how social listening can help brands gain consumer insights. It reports on research carried out by Kantar Media affiliate Cymfony for Kraft Foods to learn how American consumers' grocery shopping behaviour was being affected by the recession. Its methodology incorporated social listening on blogs, forums, etc with targeted email surveys to better-understand the attitudes and actions of women and mothers who were the primary grocery shoppers. The research revealed that women went from anger or denial about the economy to developing confidence and taking pride in being frugal. This helped shape Kraft's strategy to better engage them with appropriate in-store, online and advertising communications.
Financial Markets and Marketing: The Tradeoff between R&D and Advertising during an Economic Downturn
Surinder Tikoo and Ahmed Ebrahim, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 50, No. 1, 2010, pp. 50-56
This article examines the association between stock returns and earnings changes of firms that have made different tradeoffs with respect to R&D and advertising spending during an economic downturn.
This article examines the association between stock returns and earnings changes of firms that have made different tradeoffs with respect to R&D and advertising spending during an economic downturn. During the 2000–2002 bear market that was associated with a downturn in the U.S. economy, we find the coefficient that relates stock returns and earnings changes to be significantly greater for firms that increased their advertising expenditures and decreased their R&D expenditures than for firms that increased their R&D expenditures and decreased their advertising expenditures. Our results suggest that investors perceive that an increased emphasis on advertising can enable firms to stem earnings erosion that can potentially occur during an economic downturn.
Research on Advertising in a Recession: A Critical Review and Synthesis
Gerard J Tellis and Kethan Tellis , Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 49, No. 3, September 2009, pp. 304-327
Based on an extensive review of research on advertising in a recession, the authors identify over 40 related studies.
Based on an extensive review of research on advertising in a recession, the authors identify over 40 related studies. Ten of these studies involve original empirical analyses of cross-sectional or time series data. The rest are theoretical discussions, reviews, cases, or opinions. The empirical studies may be classified into four groups based on the dependent variable analyzed: (1) sensitivity of advertising expenditures to the economy, (2) sensitivity of brand versus private-label share to economic expansions and contractions, (3) impact of advertising in a recession to sales or market share during or after a recession, (4) impact of advertising in a recession to profits during and after the recession. The authors critically review these studies and synthesize the major findings.
Thriving Or Surviving? Using the Lessons of the Past to Help us Succeed in the Future
Mark Yeomans and Alex Johnston, Market Research Society, Annual Conference, 2009
The article discusses what can be learnt from previous recessions to help cope with the current one. The paper has two parts: 1) a study of data from the recessions of 1974-75, 1980-81 and 1990-91, and 2) views of senior industry figures who were there in the last recession.
The article discusses what can be learnt from previous recessions to help cope with the current one. The paper has two parts: 1) a study of data from the recessions of 1974-75, 1980-81 and 1990-91, and 2) views of senior industry figures who were there in the last recession. 1): the market research industry contracted sharply in 1974-5, but held up in the early 1980s, though with modest growth; in 1990-91 the industry showed some contraction, and with increasing consolidation became more mature and businesslike ; apart from these periods, the research industry showed strong growth. 2): this recession is different because: a) it is more global, b) it looks like attacking all sectors, c) the research industry has matured and understand profit, d) the change in the role of the client researcher from research buyer to insight consultant, e) the banking crisis, f) the huge technological and media changes since the last recession. Advice for both clients and agencies includes: tighten all aspects of management and control cash flow; plan for the worst; remember that research is a people business, expect changes. Other specific advice for client researchers and for agencies is given. Well-run agencies are expected to cope; medium-sized agencies are most likely to be casualties. There will be more competition from non-research businesses, pressure for cheaper, online methods. There may well be a generational shift in attitudes to be understood.
You've never had it so bad? The impact of economic adversity upon the financial consumer
Ian Stevens and Crispian Tarrant, ESOMAR, Banking and Insurance, May 1996
The recession of the early 1990s - when many people faced unemployment and mortgage holders found themselves trapped in negative equity - resulted in consumer cynicism towards financial institutions.
The recession of the early 1990s - when many people faced unemployment and mortgage holders found themselves trapped in negative equity - resulted in consumer cynicism towards financial institutions. Those that did still want loans or mortgages sought out providers with a strong reputation. This paper argues that in difficult economic times, financial institutions have to provide advice to consumers rather than appear to be motivated purely by sales.
The use of advertising during the depression
Roland S Vaile, History of Advertising Trust, No. 4, 1981
A common policy among manufacturers has been to gauge the amount of their magazine advertising by general business conditions.
A common policy among manufacturers has been to gauge the amount of their magazine advertising by general business conditions. Advertising space has been increased during prosperity and decreased during depression. Professor Crum found that the 'major functions in volume of advertising carried by magazines since the war have taken place slightly in advance of similar movements in general business conditions'.
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