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From Silos to Synergy: A Fifty-year Review of Cross-media Research Shows Synergy Has Yet to Achieve its Full Potential
Henry Assael, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 51, No. 1, 2011, 50th Anniversary Supplement, pp. 42-48
Before the advent of the Internet, media planning focused on individual media and used exposure - opportunity to see - as the criterion of effectiveness.
Before the advent of the Internet, media planning focused on individual media and used exposure - opportunity to see - as the criterion of effectiveness. Since then, the focus has shifted to the interaction between media (particularly on- and offline media) with a shift in emphasis to opportunity to act and to sales and ROI measures of effectiveness. This article traces the move from silos to synergy over a 50-year period, much of it reported in the Journal of Advertising Research. After 1994, the concept of synergy came to be increasingly identified with interactive media effects. Most notably, a few researchers saw the importance of tying cross-media effects to sales and ROI because, as one study found, media allocation criteria differ under conditions of synergy compared to the traditional silo framework for budgetary decisions. Although much has been accomplished as described herein, the promise of cross-media research has yet to be achieved. Interactive media studies have tended to focus on limited paired media comparisons. Key areas of synergistic effects such as the distinction between sequential and simultaneous media exposure have yet to be explored. And only two studies could be cited that sought to utilize cross-media effects to establish media allocation criteria based on the association of media interactions to ROI. Of most importance is the lack of reliable measures of cross-media effects. Ideally, single-source systems would measure multi-media exposure and purchase behavior for the same respondent. The data burden placed on respondents, however, makes such systems difficult to implement. The technology resulting in the proliferation of media has outstripped the means to measure cross-media effectiveness. Until adequate measures of interactive media effects are developed, cross-media research will not reach its full potential.
Cross-media measurement by the centralized data collection of comparable data
Tanja Hackenbruch and Daniel Battiston, ESOMAR, Worldwide Media Measurement, Stockholm, May 2009
The demand for uniform and comparable media usage data is becoming increasingly greater as technologies become more advanced and individual media overlap to an increasing degree.
The demand for uniform and comparable media usage data is becoming increasingly greater as technologies become more advanced and individual media overlap to an increasing degree. Current media research is faced with the problem that, what is available to consumers in the course of digitalization and more advanced technologies, has become so comprehensive and multilayered that the "data silos" are no longer sufficient for providing planners and researchers with the correspondingly complex data they need. In particular, the constant availability of media content (out-of-home, mobile, etc.), the blend of different types of media on a variety of platforms as well as the interleaving of media consumption and consumer goods consumption represent the greatest problems. This paper outlines the various research dilemmas and pinpoints a possible way out, in regard to media measurement, by presenting a new technological research approach which was designed with a view to the constantly changing media landscape and society.
Measuring the brand impact of search - Isolating and quantifying the value and effectiveness of niche brand communications on brand equity
Mark Greenstreet and Jonny Protheroe, ESOMAR, Worldwide Media Measurement, Stockholm, May 2009
This paper describes research undertaken to answer the questions “What is the branding effect of search advertising and how does it compare with other media?”.
This paper describes research undertaken to answer the questions “What is the branding effect of search advertising and how does it compare with other media?”. It is based on the measurement of the impact of search as part of a specific brand’s integrated communications campaign – measured in market. The case study describes a research approach that addresses issues relating to measuring search advertising as well as addressing many of the general problems in measuring integrated communications campaigns.
Integrated Marketing Communications: Practice Leads Theory
Philip J Kitchen, Ilchul Kim and Don E Schultz, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 48, No. 4, Dec 2008, pp. 531-546
In the last 20 years, the integration of marketing functions has moved from theory to practice. Its specific applications may vary from market to market—indeed, from enterprise to enterprise—but integrated marketing communications (IMC) programs have become standard for marketing organizations, agencies, and the academic community.
In the last 20 years, the integration of marketing functions has moved from theory to practice. Its specific applications may vary from market to market—indeed, from enterprise to enterprise—but integrated marketing communications (IMC) programs have become standard for marketing organizations, agencies, and the academic community. A review of the best IMC advertising and public relations practices in the United States, Korea, and Great Britain, however, reveals not just cultural divergence in adoption and practice, but also underlying weaknesses regarding IMC as a process and practice. The findings support the need to focus future IMC research within client organizations.
An inside-out approach to integrated marketing communication: an international analysis
Gayle Kerr, Don Schultz, Charles H Patti and Ilchul Kim, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 27, No. 4, 2008, pp. 511-548
The ‘inside-out’ approach used in this paper describes the implied educators’ perceptions of integrated marketing communication (IMC).
The ‘inside-out’ approach used in this paper describes the implied educators’ perceptions of integrated marketing communication (IMC). From an analysis of 87 IMC course syllabi from six countries, and in-depth conversations with IMC programme directors and developers, we sought to determine whether those who teach IMC have reached a consensus on what IMC is; whether they embrace, reject or simply tolerate this new discipline area; and, specifically, how they are presenting IMC to the next generation of practitioners and scholars. The findings suggest that what is being taught around the world continues to be what would traditionally be considered promotions strategy, advertising management or marketing communication with minor IMC theory or content. For the most part, the syllabi we evaluated neither drew from the key constructs of IMC, nor were the key writers and published disciplinary research included in the course offerings. This gap – between what IMC writers have put forth, the established industry practices and what is being taught to the next generation of practitioners and academics – presents a significant challenge. This is a particular challenge to the scholars and teachers who are charged with the responsibility of encouraging best practices, presenting the most current and relevant applications and research approaches, and including the most current theory in their course delivery.
Revisiting the IMC construct: a revised definition and four pillars
Jerry Kliatchko, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 27, No. 1, 2008, pp. 133-160
This paper re-examines a definition of integrated marketing communications (IMC) previously published in this journal, and proposes a revision to that original definition.
This paper re-examines a definition of integrated marketing communications (IMC) previously published in this journal, and proposes a revision to that original definition. It reviews topics of research studies conducted on IMC since its inception to the present, and establishes that the theoretical foundations and definitional issues of IMC continue to be an important area of research for most academics. This paper introduces the four pillars of IMC as an offshoot of the proposed revised definition, and discusses each pillar in detail. The paper concludes by illustrating the interplay between the pillars and levels of IMC.
The 2006 FIFA World Cup case: effective management of a 360° communication strategy
Olivier Heck, Guillaume Weill and Laurent Florès, ESOMAR, Annual Congress, Berlin, September 2007
This paper describes a one-year project that was carried out to understand the effectiveness of the adidas 360° marketing and communication strategy developed in France before, during and after the 2006 FIFA World Cup.
This paper describes a one-year project that was carried out to understand the effectiveness of the adidas 360° marketing and communication strategy developed in France before, during and after the 2006 FIFA World Cup. More specifically, it presents an innovative way of measuring the effectiveness of an integrated marketing strategy, and shows how moving away from silo-based audience measurement to a more customer centric and targeted approach can help to maximize the return on investment.
Conceptualization and Measurement of Multidimensionality of Integrated Marketing Communications
Dong Hwan Lee and Chan Wook Park, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 47, No. 3, Sept 2007, pp. 222-236
This study presents a four-dimensional conceptualization of integrated marketing communications (IMC) and empirically develops its measurement instrument.
This study presents a four-dimensional conceptualization of integrated marketing communications (IMC) and empirically develops its measurement instrument. The four dimensions not only encompass important IMC activities identified in previous studies, but also include a newly identified dimension, relationship-fostering communications with existing customers. A comprehensive yet parsimonious 18-item scale, measuring important activities of each of the four dimensions, was empirically developed. Rigorous methodological guidelines were followed, including systematic steps of field interviews, refinement, purification, and an empirical validation with a large-scale survey with IMC practitioners and researchers in South Korea. The measurement instrument exhibits stable reliabilities and robust validity.
Creative and Interactive Media Use by Agencies: Engaging an IMC Media Palette for Implementing Advertising Campaigns
Sheila L. Sasser, Scott Koslow and Edward A. Riordan, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 47, No. 3, Sept 2007, pp. 237-256
This study examines IMC media use by advertising agencies from a perspective of how creative and media implementation effects impact the scope of media selected for campaigns.
This study examines IMC media use by advertising agencies from a perspective of how creative and media implementation effects impact the scope of media selected for campaigns. The study was based upon a quantitative analysis of 872 advertising campaigns from 309 respondents from the largest advertising agencies in New York and Detroit. Overall, campaigns contain more integrated media when there is solid consumer research, formal advertising testing, diverse media experience, agency industry specialization, and high agency motivation. Creativity is positively correlated with wider IMC media use, showing that integrated interactive media campaigns using a broader media palette can be highly creative. However, neither the presence of strategy in the client’s brief nor the perception of the campaign being "on strategy" has any effect on the scope or number of media used.
A new approach for measuring “buzz”: word of mouth and word of mouse
Annelies Verhaeghe, Niels Schillewaert, Steven Van Belleghem, Christophe Vergult and Dennis Claus, ESOMAR, Worldwide Multi Media Measurement (WM3), Dublin, June 2007
With the growth of the internet, a new dimension has been added to word of mouth: namely, word of mouse.
With the growth of the internet, a new dimension has been added to word of mouth: namely, word of mouse. This paper introduces a new model that can serve as a framework for marketers, advertisers and market researchers for better understanding online word of mouse behaviour and measuring the effectiveness of a viral campaign. Results show that word of mouse has a significant impact on attitude formation about the brand and on the consumer buying process. Practical implementations for practitioners are also discussed.
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