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Achieving Reach in a Multi-Media Environment: How a Marketer's First Step Provides the Direction for the Second
Jenni Romaniuk, Virginia Beal, and Mark Uncles, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 53, No. 2, 2013, pp. 221-230
Do the audiences reached by different media touchpoints match category user profiles? Does a second media touchpoint help reach a new audience? To provide answers, the current study analyzed 16 touchpoints across 23 data sets.
Do the audiences reached by different media touchpoints match category user profiles? Does a second media touchpoint help reach a new audience? To provide answers, the current study analyzed 16 touchpoints across 23 data sets. Audiences reached by television, gift-packs, in-store displays, and outdoor advertisements closely matched category user profiles. Most other media skewed to heavy category users. Positive word of mouth and social media also skewed to heavy brand users. This knowledge can help advertisers select media to reach certain types of buyers. Analysis of media pairs also revealed that second touchpoints tended to add more duplicate than new audience. Therefore, media should be added only after exhausting the capacity of the first media to achieve cost-efficient reach.
How Much Is Too Much? The Collective Impact of Repetition and Position in Multi-Segment Sports Broadcast
Yongick Jeong, Hai Tran and Xinshu Zhao, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 52, No. 1, 2012, pp. 87-101
This study explored the collective impact of repetition and position on advertising effectiveness as evidenced through recognition and likeability of advertisements that were broadcast at different times in the Super Bowl.
This study explored the collective impact of repetition and position on advertising effectiveness as evidenced through recognition and likeability of advertisements that were broadcast at different times in the Super Bowl. The findings indicate that brands advertised more in the first half and brands that appeared in both halves but shown more in one half than the other were better recognized than those equally promoted in both halves. Meanwhile, advertisements presented in both halves but repeated more in the second half were less favored than those evenly shown in both halves. The results support theories of repetition and primacy effects.
Supporting emergent behaviours in mobile design: How open and agile research methodologies can help complex organizations respond to change and stay relevant
Dr Francesco D'Orazio, Esther Garland and Tom Crawford, Market Research Society, Annual Conference, 2011
This paper describes an integrated research project for Nokia, which wanted to regain thought leadership at the high end of the North American smartphone market.
This paper describes an integrated research project for Nokia, which wanted to regain thought leadership at the high end of the North American smartphone market. Specifically, the research company Face was briefed to help Nokia define what "relevance" means for smartphone users and create a number of consumer-driven cross-platform product propositions. The five-stage research program integrated new and online methods such as co-creation and crowdsourcing with traditional approaches. The project generated 13 propositions of which two have been put into development.
The March to Reliable Metrics: A Half-Century of Coming Closer to the Truth
Edith G. Smit and Peter C. Neijens, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 51, No. 1, 2011, 50th Anniversary Supplement, pp. 124-135
Reach and frequency are key concepts advertisers face when selecting media for their campaigns. Around the world, the advertising industry relies on audience research for insights into how different media outlets perform on these key concepts.
Reach and frequency are key concepts advertisers face when selecting media for their campaigns. Around the world, the advertising industry relies on audience research for insights into how different media outlets perform on these key concepts. In this contribution, the authors discuss the developments in audience research in three themes: (syndicated) audience research into readership of print media, ratings of television, and Internet, studies on the reach of individual advertisements, studies on the quality of reach, in particular the influence of the media context. The authors conclude with some suggestions: the need for cross-media data, the need for hybrid data collection that includes electronic and passive measurement of media use and the need for new metrics, such as measures of implicit processing of sponsored media content and measures of consumer generated brand communications.
The Power of Reach and Frequency In the Age of Digital Advertising: Offline and Online Media Demand Different Metrics
Yunjae Cheong, Federico de Gregorio and Kihan Kim, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 50, No. 4, 2010
A survey was conducted of 104 U.S. advertising-agency media directors regarding current practices in media-schedule evaluations—for both offline and online media—and the application and perceptions of reach-and-frequency estimation models.
A survey was conducted of 104 U.S. advertising-agency media directors regarding current practices in media-schedule evaluations—for both offline and online media—and the application and perceptions of reach-and-frequency estimation models. Results suggest that traditional exposure-based criteria such as reach-and-frequency distribution remain important and often are used in evaluations of offline media schedules. For online media, however, a majority of agencies rely on qualitative assessments followed by cost-based criteria or Internet-specific measures (page views). The findings also indicate decreased levels of satisfaction with computerized reach-and-frequency estimation models compared to media directors in the mid-1990s. The authors urge continuous validation of model accuracy and development of new reach-and-frequency estimation models.
Assigning television commercial videotapes to time slots under alternative message spacing policies
Michael J. Brusco and Renu Singh, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 29, No. 3, 2010, pp. 431-450
A number of studies in the psychological and marketing literature have focused on the effects of message spacing on consumer memory and judgement.
A number of studies in the psychological and marketing literature have focused on the effects of message spacing on consumer memory and judgement. The importance of message spacing has also been exemplified by a crucial scheduling problem in the broadcast television industry that requires the assignment of multiple airings of commercial videotapes to purchased slots of air time. Existing models for this problem are restricted to the case of equal spacing of successive airings in terms of slot position. In light of the fact that equal spacing of messages is not necessarily the best course of action in all situations, we present an alternative model that enables greater flexibility with respect to the spacing of commercial messages. For example, the model allows for equal temporal spacing of commercials in addition to equal spacing in terms of slot position. More importantly, the model permits spacing options that allow for pulsing strategies associated with well-separated bursts of commercial airings, as well as the consideration of spacing decisions when commercials have different durations. We demonstrate a heuristic for solving the scheduling problem under various message spacing policies. We believe that our model, which is effective and adaptable, has considerable promise for practical scheduling problems as well as subsequent experimental research.
The Spacing Effects of Multiple Exposures on Memory: Implications for Advertising Scheduling
Alan G. Sawyer, Hayden Noel, and Chris Janiszewski, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 49, No. 2, June 2009, pp. 193-197
The “spacing effect” refers to the fact that longer intervals between exposures (such as successive presentations of online pop-ups) result in better learning than shorter intervals.
The “spacing effect” refers to the fact that longer intervals between exposures (such as successive presentations of online pop-ups) result in better learning than shorter intervals. This article offers nine empirical generalizations (EGs) about the overall size of the spacing effect and how it varies under different conditions. Overall, spacing effects are found to be robust, statistically significant and large. The EGs are based on results of a meta-analysis of laboratory experiments in cognitive psychology and marketing. Several implications of the results are proposed for planning advertising schedules for the new media as well as more traditional media. From an issue of JAR devoted to `empirical generalisations’: the papers were first presented at a conference at the Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania in December 2008.
The effects of a consistent ad series on consumer evaluations: a test of the repetition–variation hypothesis in a South Korean context
Changjo Yoo, Hae-Kyong Bang and Youngchan Kim, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 28, No. 1, 2009, pp. 105-123
While academics and practitioners alike appear to widely hold the idea that consistent advertising campaigns can be effective in creating a positive and lasting image for a brand, little empirical evidence of these effects and their nature has been provided in the literature.
While academics and practitioners alike appear to widely hold the idea that consistent advertising campaigns can be effective in creating a positive and lasting image for a brand, little empirical evidence of these effects and their nature has been provided in the literature. In this study, we conducted two experiments in South Korea to examine the impact of the use of a consistent ad series versus (a) an inconsistent ad series and (b) multiple exposures to a single ad. We used the repetition–variation hypothesis as a theoretical basis for predicting that a consistent ad series will be more effective in enhancing the brand’s image on key brand personality dimensions, attitude towards the brand (A-Brand) and purchase ntention. Results provide support for the notion that a consistent message enhances A-Brand, purchase intention and brand personality in comparison to an inconsistent ad series, and also provide initial support for the repetition–variation hypothesis.
The effect of recency of ad exposure on purchasing across categories and media
Erica Riebe, Carl Driesener and Virginia Beal, ESOMAR, Worldwide Multi Media Measurement (WM3), Budapest, June 2008
The best time to reach a potential buyer with advertising is immediately before they make their choice.
The best time to reach a potential buyer with advertising is immediately before they make their choice. This model of 'recency planning' is often ignored, however, as a result of a considerable amount of confusions among planners about how to best reach large numbers of consumers near the point of purchase, and as a result of other theories which muddy the waters with regard to the importance of the frequency of exposure. Using single source data, these paper argues that there appears to be a relationship between purchasing behaviour and the recency of a consumer's exposure to advertising, with the possibility that heavier brand buyers are affected to a greater extent still.
Quantifying the Isolated and Synergistic Effects of Exposure Frequency for TV, Print, and Internet Advertising
William Havlena, Robert Cardarelli and Michelle de Montigny, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 47, No. 3, Sept 2007, pp. 215-221
This article describes an approach to measuring frequency of exposure to all media at the individual level and presents a case study illustration based on a cross-platform TV, print, and online campaign for a consumer packaged good for which advertising had begun several weeks prior to data collection.
This article describes an approach to measuring frequency of exposure to all media at the individual level and presents a case study illustration based on a cross-platform TV, print, and online campaign for a consumer packaged good for which advertising had begun several weeks prior to data collection. Using the respondent-level frequency approach, we address the contribution of different media to marketing objectives in circumstances where the campaign has already started and for very well-established brands with high levels of awareness. Knowing respondent-level frequencies also allows us to understand if media synergy effects are truly synergistic or the result of achieving higher frequency levels among people who have been exposed to multiple media.
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