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Impacts of advertisements that are unfriendly to women and men
Corine Van Hellemont and Hilde Van den Bulck, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 31, No. 3, 2012, pp. 623-656
Taking Belgium as a case in point, this study analyses, first, tolerance for advertisements unfriendly to women and men as expressed by advertising and marketing professionals, consumers and gender equal opportunity workers.
Taking Belgium as a case in point, this study analyses, first, tolerance for advertisements unfriendly to women and men as expressed by advertising and marketing professionals, consumers and gender equal opportunity workers. Second, it compares which types of unequal gender portrayal raise concerns with which sector of respondents. Finally, it analyses the differences in adherence of the three sectors to the two main policy solution paradigms proposed in the 2008 European Parliament Resolution on ‘How marketing and advertising affect equality between women and men’. Results suggest a degree of tolerance that varies significantly according to sector, language, gender and age. Overall, respondents express more concerns regarding traditional sex roles in advertising than regarding nudity, unattainable beauty standards or gender stereotypes, and prefer gender-and-advertising literacy programmes and awards for advertisements that break through gender stereotypes over stricter ethical and/or legal regulations. These findings should prove useful to advertising and marketing professionals, national advertising regulatory bodies and policy makers.
Pretty as a picture: A study of the effects of idealised imagery in advertising on the well-being of young women
Karen Fraser and Emma Taylor, Market Research Society, Annual Conference, 2012
Results of a UK research project exploring advertising's role in the cosmetics and beauty category. Specifically, it looks into the impact of airbrushed images on body confidence.
Results of a UK research project exploring advertising's role in the cosmetics and beauty category. Specifically, it looks into the impact of airbrushed images on body confidence. Credos, the researchers, first performed a literature review of previous studies, and concluded that they provide insufficient evidence to back up the case for further regulation on airbrushing in advertising, and that additional research was required. Credos' own subsequent study showed that self esteem and body confidence is often low among young women. Their vulnerability appears to peak at around 16-17 years of age. Moreover, almost half of young women agree that if brands use airbrushing to significantly alter the way a model looks, it makes them less inclined to believe what the brand or product is telling them.
Gender roles in advertising: measuring and comparing gender stereotyping on public and private TV channels in Germany
Silke Knoll, Martin Eisend and Josefine Steinhagen, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 30, No. 5, 2011, pp. 867-888
This study discusses and provides a measure for the degree of stereotyping in advertisements. Applying this measure, the study shows to what degree gender stereotypes in advertising differ between public and private TV channels in Germany.
This study discusses and provides a measure for the degree of stereotyping in advertisements. Applying this measure, the study shows to what degree gender stereotypes in advertising differ between public and private TV channels in Germany. The results show that gender stereotyping in advertising still prevails despite the change in the roles of men and women over the years. Contrary to their public mission, public TV channels do not show fewer gender stereotypes in advertisements compared to private TV channels. The degree of stereotyping as related to different stereotyping components differs significantly between these two types of channel. Gender stereotypes on private channels refer to role behaviour and physical characteristics and, thus, function as a means to sell a product. On the other hand, advertisements on public channels stereotype gender in terms of occupational status, and therefore interfere with the major goal of gender equality policy.
Gender effects in advertising
Michael F. Cramphorn, International Journal of Market Research, Vol. 53, No. 2, 2011, pp. 147-172
Less than 15% of ads are directed specifically to women and less than 5% are intended just for men. The remaining 80% are apparently targeted to everyone.
Less than 15% of ads are directed specifically to women and less than 5% are intended just for men. The remaining 80% are apparently targeted to everyone. This presumes very little difference in overall response between genders, which is strange, given that fundamental gender differences do exist. For example, women typically respond more positively to ads than men. Why should this be so? Is it intrinsic, is it cultural, or are there types of ads that work better with women than men, and vice versa? What leads to such differences? This paper reviews gender differences stemming from in-utero hormonal flows that shape the embryonic brain. How do such differences affect overall gender response to advertising? The findings show that advertising directed to just men or just women is more effective – yet paradoxically, it is seldom utilised, as most advertising appears to be targeted to both genders. In addition, although there is a wide range of effective styles of advertising and of content types that are demonstrably effective, many are comparatively neglected. Thus, there are opportunities for much more creativity and variety in the way advertising messages are communicated. The paper seeks to provide some clear pointers on how to go about this.
The Rashoman Effect: Exploring the meaning of qualitative research analysis
Peter Tottman, Market Research Society, Annual Conference, 2010
This study looks at particular issues facing qualitative research in the commercial sector, using a project on the attitudes of BC1 British men, aged 25 to 45, to their portrayal in advertising as illustration of methodological questions about qualitative work.
This study looks at particular issues facing qualitative research in the commercial sector, using a project on the attitudes of BC1 British men, aged 25 to 45, to their portrayal in advertising as illustration of methodological questions about qualitative work. The results from the research about men's attitudes to onscreen portrayals are also included in the paper.
Children’s Responses to Gender-Role Stereotyped Advertisements
Aysen Bakir, Jeffrey G. Blodgett and Gregory M. Rose, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 48, No. 2, June 2008, pp. 255-266
Research indicates that adult’s gender-role perceptions can influence their responses toward different types of advertising appeals; however, it is not known whether the same is true for young children.
Research indicates that adult’s gender-role perceptions can influence their responses toward different types of advertising appeals; however, it is not known whether the same is true for young children. Given that children’s gender-role stereotypes vary across both age and gender, it is possible that their responses toward different types of advertisements might also vary. Accordingly, this study examines whether preadolescent boys and girls differ in their attitudes toward advertisements that incorporate agentic or communal gender-role attributes. The results are managerially relevant. The findings suggest that marketers can target young boys and girls with a common set of advertisements. However, advertisements should convey agentic themes when targeted toward older preadolescent girls, and communal themes when targeted toward younger preadolescent girls. Considering that children represent a large and growing consumer segment this issue deserves greater attention.
The Sexual Objectification of Women in Advertising: A Contemporary Cultural Perspective
Amanda Zimmerman and John Dahlberg, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 48, No. 1, Mar 2008, pp. 71-79
This study measures attitudes of young women to sexually objectified advertising. A survey combining elements of two previous studies (Ford, LaTour, and Lundstrom, 1991; Mittal and Lassar, 2000) was administered to 94 female undergraduates.
This study measures attitudes of young women to sexually objectified advertising. A survey combining elements of two previous studies (Ford, LaTour, and Lundstrom, 1991; Mittal and Lassar, 2000) was administered to 94 female undergraduates. Results show significant (p > 0.001) changes in attitudes of young, educated women. Respondents agreed females were portrayed as sex objects in advertisements, but were less offended by these portrayals than female respondents in 1991. Results also show females' attitudes toward the advertisement have little effect on purchase intention, a highly significant change from attitudes of women in 1991.
Racial Stereotypes in Children’s Television Commercials
Jill K. Maher, Kenneth C. Herbst, Nancy M. Childs, and Seth Finn, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 48, No. 1, Mar 2008, pp. 80-93
In our increasingly diverse society, children are deeply engaged in television viewing and their consumption of television programming varies by ethnicity.
In our increasingly diverse society, children are deeply engaged in television viewing and their consumption of television programming varies by ethnicity. Ethnic portrayal in children's advertising is an important public policy and self-regulatory topic that may influence children's self-perception and brand perception. This research examines frequency of ethnic representation, as assessed by the proportionality criterion and type of role portrayals by ethnically stereotyped groups in 155 children's commercials. Results indicate that all diverse ethnicities were underrepresented compared to Caucasians. Ethnic representation is also examined by advertised product category, ethnic interaction, and importance of role portrayed by ethnic characters.
Hidden persuasions in soap operas: damaged heroines and negative consumer effects
Barbara B. Stern, Cristel Antonia Russell and Dale W. Russell, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 26, No. 1, 2007, pp. 9-36
The purpose of our study is to investigate the negative influence of textual images of damaged women characters in soap operas on the female consumers who constitute the majority of viewers.
The purpose of our study is to investigate the negative influence of textual images of damaged women characters in soap operas on the female consumers who constitute the majority of viewers. We begin with an analysis of the television soap genre in terms of print and radio antecedents to examine the specific attributes that make it a marketable item designed to appeal to women audiences. In a cross-sectional study of long-time viewers of four soap operas, we investigate negative consumer influences identified in prior research indicating that long exposure to negative role models is detrimental to personal life satisfaction, realistic assessment of what the world is like and achievement of reasonable goals. These influences are considered negative in that viewers who seek emotional satisfaction in parasocial attachments to characters accept images of passively subordinate women characters in attractive settings as ‘real’. Findings indicate the presenceof negative response themes such as distorted views of television reality as the norm, aspiration to the possessions and lives seen on screen, disappointment at the viewers’ own lives in comparison, and substitution of soap relationships for real-world interactions. Additional research directions on soaps as a source of hidden persuasion are suggested on the part of advertising academics, practitioners and public policy makers.
Gay subculture - a study of consumer behaviour and its implications for marketing communications
Cliff Van Wyk, ESOMAR, Global Diversity, London, September 2006
The gay subculture is a powerful economic force destined to become even more powerful in South Africa as its societal acceptance continues to increase.
The gay subculture is a powerful economic force destined to become even more powerful in South Africa as its societal acceptance continues to increase. It presents a significant opportunity to marketers to enter a new segment in itself, quite apart from the secondary influence that gay consumers exert on the mainstream market, as perceived trendsetters. This paper attempts to take marketers, who recognise the current and future benefits of addressing this segment, beyond mere intuition. Implicit and explicit beliefs are established to facilitate a high level of success probability in marketing communication endeavours.
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