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How Research can Help Build a Successful CSR Campaign
Dominika Maison and Jarosław Herrmann, ESOMAR, Congress, Istanbul, September 2013
This paper discusses the role of research in generating insights that can be used to develop corporate social responsibility (CSR) campaigns, using the example of a campaign by Žywiec Group, the Heineken-owned Polish beer brewers.
This paper discusses the role of research in generating insights that can be used to develop corporate social responsibility (CSR) campaigns, using the example of a campaign by Žywiec Group, the Heineken-owned Polish beer brewers. This CSR campaign targeted young people (aged under 16) to discourage them from drinking alcohol. A drama workshop format was selected to engage with issues around alcohol. The paper explains the research approaches taken before and during the campaign to understand what type of campaign would be effective with this age group.
Ana Alvarez and Fiona Blades, ESOMAR, Congress, Istanbul, September 2013
This paper discusses how PepsiCo, the beverage manufacturer, is developing a 'sustainable' research approach, using the example of Brazil.
This paper discusses how PepsiCo, the beverage manufacturer, is developing a 'sustainable' research approach, using the example of Brazil. Sustainability has often been neglected or meant making a donation to charity. PepsiCo took a different approach by engaging with communities in Brazil to collect information useful to the business, and then investing in community projects. PepsiCo hopes that this project will change the way teams within the company work.
Conspicuous Conservation: Using semiotics to understand sustainable luxury
Marie-Cecile Cervellon, International Journal of Market Research, Vol. 55, No. 5, 2013, pp. 695-717
This paper investigates the meaning of sustainable luxury among the wealthy, who are the primary target group of luxury brands.
This paper investigates the meaning of sustainable luxury among the wealthy, who are the primary target group of luxury brands. In doing so, it highlights the interest of using a combination of semiotics tools (Peirce's and Greimas' paradigms) to analyse consumers' discourses. Indeed, understanding the sign-value of a brand in relation to the natural environment and society is paramount to the development of CSR activities, in order to avoid, on one side, being perceived as greenwashing and, on the other, losing the brand meaning and authenticity. Findings indicate that the luxury clientele opposes 'ascribed luxury' (discreet and emphasising traditional manufacturing techniques) to 'achieved luxury' (conspicuous and marketed). The contribution of luxury brands to society welfare should be located on a continuum between sustainability in ethos and along the supply chain, and pure philanthropic actions, both being worthy in consumers' views, and both being expected from luxury brands to different degrees, depending on the brand ascribed or achieved status.
The mediating role of attitude towards values advocacy ads in evaluating issue support behaviour and purchase intention
Yoon-Joo Lee, Eric Haley and Kiseol Yang, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 32, No. 2, 2013, pp. 233-253
Through an experimental design, this study examines the mediating role of attitude towards values advocacy advertising sponsored by Miller and McDonald’s.
Through an experimental design, this study examines the mediating role of attitude towards values advocacy advertising sponsored by Miller and McDonald’s. Adopting hierarchy-of-effects perspectives, the study examined the role of attitude towards the values advocacy advertising in evaluating purchase intention and issue support behaviour. The study results revealed that AValuesAdvocacyAd is a mediator for predicting issue support behaviour when consumers perceive a company’s value advocacy advertising as driven by public-serving motives. Purchase intention was directly affected by perceived public-serving motives of the advertisers. Further, a new construct, self-construal, was found as an antecedent to the cognitive construct, consumers’ perceptions towards the advertisers’ intention as public-serving.
Why art thou resisting? Consumer resistance to the 'citizen argument' of retailers
Chiraz Aouina Mejri, Dhruv Bhatli and Mouna Benhallam, International Journal of Market Research, Vol. 54, No. 5, 2012, pp. 707-721
Recent studies on corporate social responsibility (CSR) illustrate the positive consumer reaction to the socially responsible practices of retailers, and outline the upside for retailers to engage in these practices.
Recent studies on corporate social responsibility (CSR) illustrate the positive consumer reaction to the socially responsible practices of retailers, and outline the upside for retailers to engage in these practices. However, little is known about the downside of these practices: consumer negative reaction due to the ambiguous and complex nature of consumer reaction, and consumers’ resistance to the ‘citizen argument’ put forth by retailers. This research, through 17 interviews, fills this gap to explore the complex nature of consumer reaction to CSR practices, and investigates motivations and manifestations of consumer resistance to the ‘citizen argument’ of mass-market retailers. The findings reveal consumer responses to CSR practices (their resistant behaviour), their causes, and classify them in two forms – resistance to the consumerist practice attributed to retailing, and resistance to an ‘insidious’ commitment to sustainable development where sincerity is claimed by the mass-market retailers.
Let the Brazilian sun shine in: Building credibility for solar energy by developing research-based concepts and communication
Fabián Echegaray , ESOMAR, Latin America, Mexico City, May 2012
This paper examines how market research helped clients developing the first solar photovoltaic energy (SPV) venture in Brazil, by identifying the public's myths and concerns, and testing reactions to develop and refine the key communication tool: a solar eco-label.
This paper examines how market research helped clients developing the first solar photovoltaic energy (SPV) venture in Brazil, by identifying the public's myths and concerns, and testing reactions to develop and refine the key communication tool: a solar eco-label. Research also led to the conclusion that a univeral SPV quality-seal would have a stronger resonance if used in institutional advertising campaigns instead of on product packaging alone.
The effectiveness of advertising that leverages sponsorship and cause-related marketing: a contingency model
Chingching Chang, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 31, No. 2, 2012, pp. 317-337
This paper shows that consumers are more likely to have ambivalent attitudes towards cause-related marketing (CRM) than sponsorship.
This paper shows that consumers are more likely to have ambivalent attitudes towards cause-related marketing (CRM) than sponsorship. Whereas consumers share similar positive perceptions of CRM and sponsorship, and attribute the motives behind them to altruism, their negative perceptions and attributions of CRM are more accessible than those of sponsorships. On the basis of these differences, this article proposes a contingency model in which suppressing the activation of CRM’s negative perceptions enhances the effectiveness of advertising that leverages CRM. The effectiveness of advertising that leverages corporate sponsorship, which is not associated with ambivalent perceptions, is less subject to the suppression of negative perceptions. The model includes two contingent factors, an individual difference factor and a situational factor. The results generally support the proposed model; the effectiveness of ads leveraging CRM improves when negative associations of CRM are less likely to be activated.
Communication strategies for enhancing perceived fit in the CSR sponsorship context
Yong Seok Sohn, Jin K. Han and Sung-Hack Lee, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 31, No. 1, 2012, pp. 133-146
Engaging in corporate social responsibility (CSR) is becoming an increasingly common business practice globally and across industries.
Engaging in corporate social responsibility (CSR) is becoming an increasingly common business practice globally and across industries. By contributing to societal welfare, firms can also enhance their corporate image among its stakeholders - in particular, its customers. For CSR to generate goodwill, consumers generally need to perceive a fit between the sponsoring firm and its CSR. Otherwise, consumers may second-guess the firm's intrinsic CSR motives, which may even evoke a negative reaction. In practice, however, many firms today engage in CSR activities that cover a wide spectrum of perceived fit. To this end, this research explores communication strategies (elaborational vs relational) that help elevate the perceived fit between the sponsoring firm and its CSR activity at high vs low levels. Specifically, we find elaborational communication strategy (which focuses on the merits of CSR activity per se and not on the association with the firm) to be more effective for the low-fit case, whereas relational communication strategy (which highlights the association between the company and CSR) was more effective for the high-fit case.
All for one and one for all: Targeting sustainability - the revival of 'virtues' in research and results
Nicole Hanisch, Jens Lönneker and Yvonne Masopust, ESOMAR, Qualitative, Vienna, November 2011
This paper describes a multi-client research project into the notion of sustainability. The research explores the meaning of sustainability from the perspective of both consumers and marketing, including their similarities, differences and opportunities of aligning the two.
This paper describes a multi-client research project into the notion of sustainability. The research explores the meaning of sustainability from the perspective of both consumers and marketing, including their similarities, differences and opportunities of aligning the two. Equally, it offers guidelines for incorporating messages relating to sustainability into communications, based on the psychology of sustainability, including how to overcome consumer cynicism by exploring the signals and aesthetics of sustainability. The multi-client backing of the project allows for new general insights as well as insights for different industries that want to include sustainability in their marketing.
I hadn't really thought about that! The organisational impact of research ethics
Marie-Agnès Beetschen and Agnes Nairn, ESOMAR, Congress, Amsterdam, September 2011
Ethical behaviour can have very positive impacts on corporate performance. It can result in higher employee motivation and involvement, lower staff turnover and even a better bottom line.
Ethical behaviour can have very positive impacts on corporate performance. It can result in higher employee motivation and involvement, lower staff turnover and even a better bottom line. This paper reviews a pioneering case study of how Unilever built a global research ethics awareness programme and how it is now impacting staff and corporate culture. Research ethics are high on the agenda in the research community but the impact of ethics is rarely measured or even discussed. The authors aim to stimulate creative discussion on how to approach ethics proactively and with a view to making an impact on organisational performance.
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