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Effects of recommendation systems on consumer inferences of website motives and attitudes towards a website
Hyun Ju Jeong and Mira Lee, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 32, No. 4, 2013, pp. 539-558
Drawing on the theoretical framework of consumer inferences of marketer motives, we explore consumer responses to different types of product recommendation provided by an e-commerce website (i.e.
Drawing on the theoretical framework of consumer inferences of marketer motives, we explore consumer responses to different types of product recommendation provided by an e-commerce website (i.e. recommendation systems, RS). The findings demonstrate that RS for alternative brands only are most likely to lead to the consumer inference of a consumer-serving motive, followed by RS for both alternative brands and additional products, and RS for additional products only. In turn, the consumer inference of a consumer-serving motive has a positive influence on attitude towards the website. However, the consumer inference of a firm-serving motive does not mediate the effect of RS type on attitude towards the website. Further, the effect of RS type on attitude towards the website occurs only for consumers low in interpersonal trust. Theoretical and managerial implications are also discussed.
How using versus showing interaction between characters and products boosts product placement effectiveness
Bernadette Kamleitner and Abul Khair Jyote, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 32, No. 4, 2013, pp. 633-653
Placements in movies increase brand awareness. Whether they are effective beyond memory, (e.g.
Placements in movies increase brand awareness. Whether they are effective beyond memory, (e.g. in terms of brand attitudes) is a contested issue. This paper argues and shows that a specific type of placement, character–product interaction (CPI), is able to achieve effectiveness across measures of placement success. A comparison of three experimental versions of the same movie demonstrates the consistent advantage of CPI placements over static prominent placements. Additional exploratory analyses suggest that placement effectiveness may also depend on characteristics of the placed product.
Assessing the cross-cultural applicability of tailored advertising - A comparative study between the Netherlands and Poland
Ewa Maslowska, Edith G. Smit and Bas van den Putte, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 32, No. 4, 2013, pp. 487-511
This study compares the effectiveness of tailored advertising in two European Union member states: a longstanding member with a long history of advertising, the Netherlands; and a new member with a shorter advertising tradition, Poland.
This study compares the effectiveness of tailored advertising in two European Union member states: a longstanding member with a long history of advertising, the Netherlands; and a new member with a shorter advertising tradition, Poland. The positive effects of tailored advertising are hypothesised to be stronger among Polish consumers than among Dutch consumers because of the different advertising traditions in these two countries. A between-subjects experiment is conducted to test individuals’ responses to tailored versus generic advertisements for an unknown face-cream brand. The results show that tailoring is effective in influencing message attitudes, brand attitudes and purchase intentions, but only for Polish consumers. This tailoring effect is mediated by involvement with the message, message relevance and scepticism about the message. These findings suggest that tailored advertising can be used successfully in less marketing-savvy countries such as Poland, but that it may not be effective in more marketing-savvy countries such as the Netherlands.
How Strong is the Pull of the Past? Measuring Personal Nostalgia Evoked by Advertising
Altaf Merchant, Kathryn LaTour, John B. Ford, and Michael S. LaTour, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 53, No. 2, 2013, pp. 150-165
Marketers frequently evoke personal nostalgia in their advertising. To date, scales have been developed to measure the propensity to get nostalgic but not the actual dimensions of personal nostalgia.
Marketers frequently evoke personal nostalgia in their advertising. To date, scales have been developed to measure the propensity to get nostalgic but not the actual dimensions of personal nostalgia. Results from four studies show that advertising-evoked personal nostalgia comprises four correlated but distinct dimensions: past imagery, positive emotions, negative emotions, and physiological reactions. This multidimensional scale showed a high level of validity and reliability. Moreover, due to careful choice of sampling frames, the study demonstrates a high level of external generalizability. Evaluating nostalgia-based advertising using the study’s multidimensional scale may provide marketers with strategic insights for developing and fine-tuning advertising aimed at inducing nostalgia among consumers.
Stop Flawed Marketing Mix Models From Stunting Growth
David Hoo and Michael von Gonten, ARF Experiential Learning, Audience Measurement 8.0, 2013
This paper argues that marketing mix models are not useful, and that the mix models currently in use, either the original format or the newer, VAR style, systematically understate the true effects of advertising.
This paper argues that marketing mix models are not useful, and that the mix models currently in use, either the original format or the newer, VAR style, systematically understate the true effects of advertising. Mix models are regression models and, as such, are incapable of providing truly causal evidence as to the effects of advertising and promotion. This leads marketers to undervalue the real effects of advertising and to reduce their advertising spending, reallocating those funds to price promotion. Such reductions in expenditure have the unintended effect of stunting sustainable growth and eroding the brand equity built by advertising. Moreover, reducing adspend to maximise efficiency is a vicious circle; on the other hand, effective advertising is an engine of growth.
Car brands: The road to riches fuelled by brand power
Peter Walshe and Nick Bull, ESOMAR, Automotive Research Forum, Wolfsburg, May 2013
This report provides an analysis of the automotive brands that feature in Millward Brown's BrandZ rankings.
This report provides an analysis of the automotive brands that feature in Millward Brown's BrandZ rankings. It examines what has caused these car brands to change position in the table over time, with particular focus on the effects of the global recession, model recalls, social media effects and the new 'value-conscious' era. The report argues that financial success for car brands depends on being meaningful, different and salient, and describes how they can grow in value through fostering these properties.
Consumer meaning making: the meaning of luxury brands in a democratised luxury world
Liselot Hudders, Mario Pandelaere and Patrick Vyncke, International Journal of Market Research, Vol. 55, No. 3, 2013, pp. 391-412
The nature of luxury is constantly changing and this makes it difficult to formulate a universal definition of luxury brands.
The nature of luxury is constantly changing and this makes it difficult to formulate a universal definition of luxury brands. The current paper aims to enrich the understanding of luxury brand meaning from a consumer perspective. In particular, this paper investigates consumers’ perceptions of luxury brands based on the extent to which they associate various attributes to luxury brands. A large-scale survey in the Flemish part of Belgium reveals three facets of luxury brand meaning: an expressive facet that refers to the exclusivity of luxury brands, an impressive-functional facet that refers to premium quality and an impressive-emotional facet that refers to extraordinary aesthetic aspects. In addition, the current study distinguishes three consumer segments (i.e. impressive, expressive and mixed segment) that differ from each other for the importance they attach to these facets of luxury brand meaning. The impressive segment associates luxury brand meaning with both impressive-functional and impressive-emotional facets, while the expressive segment associates luxury brand meaning with the expressive facet, rather than with impressive facets. The third segment, mixed group, thinks both expressive and impressive facets of luxury brand meaning need to be present before a brand can be categorised as luxury brand. In addition, the current study extends previous segmentations by providing a detailed profile of the segments. In particular, this study shows that the views are differentially related to both individual difference variables and various aspects of individual well-being (i.e. self-esteem and negative affect).
The impact of event marketing on brand equity: the mediating roles of brand experience and brand attitude
Lia Zarantonello and Bernd H. Schmitt, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 32, No. 2, 2013, pp. 255-280
Can event marketing contribute to brand equity? A field study with consumers participating in different types of events (trade shows, street events, pop-up shops and sponsored events) indicates that event attendance has a positive impact on brand equity.
Can event marketing contribute to brand equity? A field study with consumers participating in different types of events (trade shows, street events, pop-up shops and sponsored events) indicates that event attendance has a positive impact on brand equity. Our analysis reveals that brand experience, an antecedent of brand attitude, mediates the relationship between pre-event and post-event brand equity in all types of events. Brand attitude, on the other hand, mediates this relationship only in some cases (trade shows and street events). Implications of the results for event theory and practice are discussed.
Growing brands by connecting with deeper human motivations: Demonstration of a new research approach that directly links to business outcomes
Niels Blichfeldt, Sue Philips and Shivani Dayal Kapoor, ESOMAR, Asia Pacific, Ho Chi Minh City, April 2013
Through an example in the beer category in China and India, this research paper shows how a people-centred approach, using precise drivers of brand growth, combined with predictive abilities to anticipate market share can deliver strong business outcomes from research.
Through an example in the beer category in China and India, this research paper shows how a people-centred approach, using precise drivers of brand growth, combined with predictive abilities to anticipate market share can deliver strong business outcomes from research. Brand growth is achieved through different options including optimisation of brand positioning, portfolio management, repositioning, brand stretching and innovation. This report criticises standard brand equity research, claiming that it is unable to effectively answer how a company can make brands meaningful to people and how meaningful brands can grow a business. The people-centric methodology proposed in this paper deconstructs human needs into four layers that on average explains 85-95% of brand choice, then supports this with a psychological model, which ensures that all decisions are made with consumer motivation at the centre. Then to determine the direction of a brand's growth, it identifies the brand's current Attitudinal Equity (a measure of the strength of consumers' psychological relationship with the brand) and focuses on growing it.
Superpromoter Research: How studying the flow of enthusiasm of customers helps corporate giants
Arne van de Wijdeven and Rijn Vogelaar, ESOMAR, Asia Pacific, Ho Chi Minh City, April 2013
Philips, the domestic appliance and personal care company, wanted to identify, understand and assist its most enthusiastic customers - "superpromoters" - in India.
Philips, the domestic appliance and personal care company, wanted to identify, understand and assist its most enthusiastic customers - "superpromoters" - in India. Philips is used as a case study to illustrate how superpromoters can help a brand grow in terms of revenue and reputation; can motivate employees; can help a brand make strategic and tactical decisions; are ideal co-creators. The authors found most companies don't have much information on their most enthusiastic customers, hence they suffer superpromoter blindness. The study encourages more brands to engage with and listen to their superpromoters.
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