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What do you do when your world is turned upside down?: Case of applied cultural anthropology to a business problem
Catharine Bauer and Johanna Faigelman, ESOMAR, Qualitative, Valencia, November 2013
This paper describes research undertaken in order to advise a pharmaceutical client on re-entering the market after the withdrawal of a previous medication due to safety concerns.
This paper describes research undertaken in order to advise a pharmaceutical client on re-entering the market after the withdrawal of a previous medication due to safety concerns. The research study uncovered strategic and deeply motivating consumer and physician insights to position the company's new products in order to be successful. As a result of the research the brand and marketing teams had a clear direction as to the strategies that were needed to be in place pre-launch for success. These guided the development of the product label, communication platform messages and tonality, and the brand positioning.
Presence and effects of health and nutrition-related (HNR) claims with benefit-seeking and risk-avoidance appeals in female-orientated magazine food advertisements
Hojoon Choi, Kyunga Yoo, Tae Hyun Baek, Leonard N. Reid and Wendy Macias, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 32, No. 4, 2013, pp. 587-616
A multi-method study was conducted to, first, establish the prevalence of types of health- and nutrition-related (HNR) claims (nutrient content, structure/function and health claims) with benefit-seeking and risk-avoidance appeals in food advertisements appearing in magazines with large female audiences and, second, determine the effects of the two HNR-paired appeal types on females’ evaluative judgements of food advertisements.
A multi-method study was conducted to, first, establish the prevalence of types of health- and nutrition-related (HNR) claims (nutrient content, structure/function and health claims) with benefit-seeking and risk-avoidance appeals in food advertisements appearing in magazines with large female audiences and, second, determine the effects of the two HNR-paired appeal types on females’ evaluative judgements of food advertisements. Analysis of 633 food advertisements from eight women-orientated magazines found a substantial use of risk-avoidance appeals in food advertising, primarily in association with nutrient content claims. Risk-avoidance appeals were especially present in product categories considered relatively unhealthy and less nutritious. Two experiments conducted to examine appeal-type effects in association with nutrient content claims found that both benefit-seeking and risk-avoidance appeals enhanced perceived healthiness of advertised food products among females; however, risk-avoidance appeals were preferred to benefit-seeking appeals, regardless of food healthiness.
Baring it all: An exploration of the public vs. private face of modern women in Asia Pacific
Chris Casanare, Christina Inocentes and Bing Natividad, ESOMAR, Asia Pacific, Ho Chi Minh City, April 2013
This paper looks at recent changes in the role of women in Asia Pacific, and the economic, cultural and social consequences of these changes.
This paper looks at recent changes in the role of women in Asia Pacific, and the economic, cultural and social consequences of these changes. The authors conducted a research project, consisting of interviews with women from 12 Asian nations. The key findings are that, across the region, the impact of economic growth and exposure to the outside world on the lives of women has been immense, and that the Asian woman is unique, because while her identity is still deeply rooted in her traditional culture, but at the same time she is coping with new opportunities. Significant differences across the region are revealed for the question of how these women view personal empowerment: there are tensions amongst women that are relative to their level of empowerment or the ability to make choices for themselves on matters that are important to them. The authors discuss implications for brand strategy suggested by these findings.
Getting to know Wonder Woman: What mobile ethnography can add to how we understand consumers
Chris Jones, ESOMAR, Qualitative, Amsterdam, November 2012
Mobile mass ethnography and online communities can offer a more accurate, holistic picture of consumer behaviour by allowing stories to unfold rather than pre-framing their context.
Mobile mass ethnography and online communities can offer a more accurate, holistic picture of consumer behaviour by allowing stories to unfold rather than pre-framing their context. This paper describes a recent project for Kellogg's, the cereal manufacturer, in which this approach was successfully used to create engaging insights for its Special K brand. Kellogg's knew that in order to unlock penetration growth, it would need a more emotional communications and NPD strategy for its target segment. By using mobile and digital platforms, Kellogg's was able to gain a deeper understanding of the role Special K could play in the target group's lives and discern insights that would inform its 2013 brand planning process.
When Kiosk Retailing Intimidates Shoppers: How Gender-Focused Advertising Can Mitigate the Perceived Risks of the Unfamiliar
My Bui, Anjala S. Krishen and Michael S. LaTour, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 52, No. 3, 2012, pp. 346-363
This study addresses kiosk-based shopping behavior among female consumers. The authors sought to build upon existing promotional retail research that showed and explained gender differences in experiential shopping environments.
This study addresses kiosk-based shopping behavior among female consumers. The authors sought to build upon existing promotional retail research that showed and explained gender differences in experiential shopping environments. Upon confirming extant literature findings of gender differences as they apply to perceptions of shopping risk in kiosk environments, the current study manipulates levels of anticipated regret for males and females when shopping in kiosks versus traditional department stores in a between-subjects experimental design incorporating a diverse non-student sample. The robust gender difference indicates that targeted promotions for kiosks are critical to the reduction of possible regret and risk perceptions, especially for females.
Vanishing acts: creative women in Spain and the United States
Jean Grow, David Roca and Sheri J. Broyles, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 31, No. 3, 2012, pp. 657-679
This exploratory cross-cultural study examines the experiences of women in advertising creative departments in Spain and the United States.
This exploratory cross-cultural study examines the experiences of women in advertising creative departments in Spain and the United States. The study, an exploration of the creative environment and its impact on female creatives, is framed by Hofstede’s dimensional model of national culture (Hofstede 2001; de Mooij & Hofstede 2010) and signalling theory (Spence 1974). Interviews with 35 top female creatives suggest that the challenges women face are rooted in the ‘fraternity culture’ or ‘territorio de chicos’ of creative departments in both countries. The data further suggest that the gender-bound cultural environment of advertising creative departments may be a global phenomenon, one that may adversely affect the creative process and impact women’s upward mobility.
Impacts of advertisements that are unfriendly to women and men
Corine Van Hellemont and Hilde Van den Bulck, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 31, No. 3, 2012, pp. 623-656
Taking Belgium as a case in point, this study analyses, first, tolerance for advertisements unfriendly to women and men as expressed by advertising and marketing professionals, consumers and gender equal opportunity workers.
Taking Belgium as a case in point, this study analyses, first, tolerance for advertisements unfriendly to women and men as expressed by advertising and marketing professionals, consumers and gender equal opportunity workers. Second, it compares which types of unequal gender portrayal raise concerns with which sector of respondents. Finally, it analyses the differences in adherence of the three sectors to the two main policy solution paradigms proposed in the 2008 European Parliament Resolution on ‘How marketing and advertising affect equality between women and men’. Results suggest a degree of tolerance that varies significantly according to sector, language, gender and age. Overall, respondents express more concerns regarding traditional sex roles in advertising than regarding nudity, unattainable beauty standards or gender stereotypes, and prefer gender-and-advertising literacy programmes and awards for advertisements that break through gender stereotypes over stricter ethical and/or legal regulations. These findings should prove useful to advertising and marketing professionals, national advertising regulatory bodies and policy makers.
New faces, new roles, new ways, a new Latin America: The complex environment of a changing population
Luis Woldenberg Karakowsky and Delores Sánchez, ESOMAR, Latin America, Mexico City, May 2012
This paper tackles the transformation and configuration of various Latin American societies - Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico, Nicaragua and Peru.
This paper tackles the transformation and configuration of various Latin American societies - Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico, Nicaragua and Peru. Areas covered include consumption, the possibilities for economic development, the employment challenges faced by the young, the changes in families, senior citizens, communication and entertainment habits, as well as expenses and resources. Findings show that women and youth have seen especially marked changes from previous generations, there has been a loss in followers of the Catholic religion, obesity is on the rise and inequality between the poor and rich is extremely stark.
Psychological ownership: a social marketing advertising message appeal? Not for women
Judith Anne Garretson Folse, Julie Guidry Moulard and Randle D. Raggio, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 31, No. 2, 2012, pp. 291-315
The authors assessed psychological ownership as a potential persuasive advertising message appeal in social marketing efforts.
The authors assessed psychological ownership as a potential persuasive advertising message appeal in social marketing efforts. Psychological ownership is a feeling of possession; it occurs when individuals feel that something is theirs even though they cannot hold legal title to it. Interestingly, the first study indicated advertising messages that generate psychological ownership yielded less favourable attitudes, word of mouth and willingness to pay price premiums among women. Women responded more negatively to messages that attempted to induce psychological ownership than to neutral messages. The adverse responses of women prompted the second study, in which both the psychological ownership message and cognitive capacity were manipulated. Results indicate that, in a limited cognitive capacity condition, women responded similarly towards higher psychological ownership and neutral advertising messages. Further, these effects were mediated by inferences of manipulative intent and not feelings of guilt. Theoretical and managerial implications are offered for marketers attempting to use psychological ownership as an advertising message strategy and gender as a segmentation strategy.
Pretty as a picture: A study of the effects of idealised imagery in advertising on the well-being of young women
Karen Fraser and Emma Taylor, Market Research Society, Annual Conference, 2012
Results of a UK research project exploring advertising's role in the cosmetics and beauty category. Specifically, it looks into the impact of airbrushed images on body confidence.
Results of a UK research project exploring advertising's role in the cosmetics and beauty category. Specifically, it looks into the impact of airbrushed images on body confidence. Credos, the researchers, first performed a literature review of previous studies, and concluded that they provide insufficient evidence to back up the case for further regulation on airbrushing in advertising, and that additional research was required. Credos' own subsequent study showed that self esteem and body confidence is often low among young women. Their vulnerability appears to peak at around 16-17 years of age. Moreover, almost half of young women agree that if brands use airbrushing to significantly alter the way a model looks, it makes them less inclined to believe what the brand or product is telling them.
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