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Masculinity: A semiotic and cultural exploration in India
Satyam Viswanathan , ESOMAR, Asia Pacific, Ho Chi Minh City, April 2013
This paper offers a semiotic analysis and cultural exploration of masculinity in India, providing a comprehensive examination of the codes that have defined Indian masculinity from antiquity to the present day.
This paper offers a semiotic analysis and cultural exploration of masculinity in India, providing a comprehensive examination of the codes that have defined Indian masculinity from antiquity to the present day. The analysis draws on history, popular culture, sociology (impact of the caste system), religion, and emergent Indian feminism. It also focuses on the implications of today's conflicted Indian masculinity for businesses and marketers, as they develop culturally relevant brand positioning and communication strategies.
When Kiosk Retailing Intimidates Shoppers: How Gender-Focused Advertising Can Mitigate the Perceived Risks of the Unfamiliar
My Bui, Anjala S. Krishen and Michael S. LaTour, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 52, No. 3, 2012, pp. 346-363
This study addresses kiosk-based shopping behavior among female consumers. The authors sought to build upon existing promotional retail research that showed and explained gender differences in experiential shopping environments.
This study addresses kiosk-based shopping behavior among female consumers. The authors sought to build upon existing promotional retail research that showed and explained gender differences in experiential shopping environments. Upon confirming extant literature findings of gender differences as they apply to perceptions of shopping risk in kiosk environments, the current study manipulates levels of anticipated regret for males and females when shopping in kiosks versus traditional department stores in a between-subjects experimental design incorporating a diverse non-student sample. The robust gender difference indicates that targeted promotions for kiosks are critical to the reduction of possible regret and risk perceptions, especially for females.
Impacts of advertisements that are unfriendly to women and men
Corine Van Hellemont and Hilde Van den Bulck, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 31, No. 3, 2012, pp. 623-656
Taking Belgium as a case in point, this study analyses, first, tolerance for advertisements unfriendly to women and men as expressed by advertising and marketing professionals, consumers and gender equal opportunity workers.
Taking Belgium as a case in point, this study analyses, first, tolerance for advertisements unfriendly to women and men as expressed by advertising and marketing professionals, consumers and gender equal opportunity workers. Second, it compares which types of unequal gender portrayal raise concerns with which sector of respondents. Finally, it analyses the differences in adherence of the three sectors to the two main policy solution paradigms proposed in the 2008 European Parliament Resolution on ‘How marketing and advertising affect equality between women and men’. Results suggest a degree of tolerance that varies significantly according to sector, language, gender and age. Overall, respondents express more concerns regarding traditional sex roles in advertising than regarding nudity, unattainable beauty standards or gender stereotypes, and prefer gender-and-advertising literacy programmes and awards for advertisements that break through gender stereotypes over stricter ethical and/or legal regulations. These findings should prove useful to advertising and marketing professionals, national advertising regulatory bodies and policy makers.
How a presenter's perceived attractiveness affects persuasion for attractiveness-unrelated products
Sandra Praxmarer, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 30, No. 5, 2011, pp. 839-865
Contrary to the beauty match-up hypothesis, several studies report positive effects of a presenter's attractiveness for attractiveness-unrelated products.
Contrary to the beauty match-up hypothesis, several studies report positive effects of a presenter's attractiveness for attractiveness-unrelated products. This research demonstrates how, via which paths, the presenter's attractiveness affects persuasion for attractiveness-unrelated products. For a non-celebrity presenter the positive effect of attractiveness on persuasion is mediated by perceived presenter expertise, presenter trustworthiness, and liking of the advertisement. Previous studies could neither support the relevance of these paths unambiguously nor did they test whether or not perceived expertise, trustworthiness, and liking of the ad fully mediate the attractiveness effect. This study also considers receiver and presenter sex and receivers' product involvement. The results indicate that attractiveness affects persuasion positively regardless of whether the presenter and receiver are of the same or the opposite sex and regardless of whether receivers are characterised by low or high product involvement.
Researching the unresearchable: How research helped Samaritans in their campaign to reduce suicide
Nicola Peckett and Nick Johnson, ESOMAR, Qualitative, Vienna, November 2011
In the UK, 6,000 people take their own lives every year; 4,000 of them are men. Samaritans, a charity providing emotional support to those experiencing despair, sought to develop an ad campaign aimed at reducing male suicide.
In the UK, 6,000 people take their own lives every year; 4,000 of them are men. Samaritans, a charity providing emotional support to those experiencing despair, sought to develop an ad campaign aimed at reducing male suicide. Together with Network Rail (the owner of the UK's rail network), it launched a five-year joint partnership to reduce suicides on the railways. The campaign was aimed at men in low income groups living in the most socially deprived areas of the UK, requiring research in areas typically ignored or avoided. This was extended to prisons and young offenders institutes. Following the campaign, Samaritans' call volume figures showed that 12,000 more men called the helpline in 2010 compared with 2009. Furthermore, the number of suicides on Britain's rail network fell from 233 in 2009/10 to 207 in 2010/11 – an 11% decrease.
The 'I' of the beholder: How gender differences and self-referencing influence charity advertising
Chun-Tuan Chang and Yu-Kang Lee, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 30, No. 3, 2011, pp. 447-478
This research investigates gender differences in terms of the response to altruistic and egoistic charitable appeals, and demonstrates how self-referencing can influence advertising processing under different message frames.
This research investigates gender differences in terms of the response to altruistic and egoistic charitable appeals, and demonstrates how self-referencing can influence advertising processing under different message frames. An experiment is conducted through the internet. Self-referencing is operationalised in perceived orientation of a non-profit organisation. When self-referencing is high, the phenomenon of value congruity is observed that female participants tend to be convinced by the altruistic appeal and male counterparts are more likely to be persuaded by the egoistic appeal. More importantly, the contrast effects are found when the perceived orientation of the NPO is other-referencing. In this case, the egoistic appeal is more effective for women and the altruistic appeal is more persuasive for men. Implications of the current findings for existing theory are discussed, along with directions for future research.
Gender effects in advertising
Michael F. Cramphorn, International Journal of Market Research, Vol. 53, No. 2, 2011, pp. 147-172
Less than 15% of ads are directed specifically to women and less than 5% are intended just for men. The remaining 80% are apparently targeted to everyone.
Less than 15% of ads are directed specifically to women and less than 5% are intended just for men. The remaining 80% are apparently targeted to everyone. This presumes very little difference in overall response between genders, which is strange, given that fundamental gender differences do exist. For example, women typically respond more positively to ads than men. Why should this be so? Is it intrinsic, is it cultural, or are there types of ads that work better with women than men, and vice versa? What leads to such differences? This paper reviews gender differences stemming from in-utero hormonal flows that shape the embryonic brain. How do such differences affect overall gender response to advertising? The findings show that advertising directed to just men or just women is more effective – yet paradoxically, it is seldom utilised, as most advertising appears to be targeted to both genders. In addition, although there is a wide range of effective styles of advertising and of content types that are demonstrably effective, many are comparatively neglected. Thus, there are opportunities for much more creativity and variety in the way advertising messages are communicated. The paper seeks to provide some clear pointers on how to go about this.
Socialising Insight to Drive Corporate Collaboration: What happens when brands start co-creating among themselves as well as with consumers
Brendan Bolger and Claire O'Conner, Market Research Society, Annual Conference, 2010
In 2008, Sense Worldwide completed 'Species: A User's Guide To Young Men' for Discovery Networks, a comprehensive study into male attitudes and behaviour.
In 2008, Sense Worldwide completed 'Species: A User's Guide To Young Men' for Discovery Networks, a comprehensive study into male attitudes and behaviour. Through this, and with the intention of opening up the research for cross-brand co-creation, the CKPP was founded. It was intended to be an initiative that set out to identify a group of brands that could share and collaborate around this insight in a series of co-creation workshops to deliver innovative joint initiatives and product ideas. It's a five-stage process: launch, alignment workshop, opportunity mapping, co-creation workshop and post-workshop development.
Motivators for the intention to use mobile TV: a comparison of South Korean males and females
Yung Kyun Choi, Juran Kim and Sally J. McMillan, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 28, No. 1, 2009, pp. 147-167
This research tests the effects of gender on attitude and intention to use mobile TV. Gender is frequently identified as a key moderating variable in consumers’ behaviour and in the usage of media.
This research tests the effects of gender on attitude and intention to use mobile TV. Gender is frequently identified as a key moderating variable in consumers’ behaviour and in the usage of media. Studying the case of mobile TV in the early stage of Korean digital multimedia broadcasting (DMB) development is important because Korea is the first market where mobile TV is commercially available. The findings can provide useful implications not only for theory in the adoption of new media but also for marketing practitioners in countries that are rolling out mobile TV. Five motivation factors – entertainment, social interaction, permanent access, pass time and fashion/status – were drawn from uses and gratifications theory to test their relationship with attitude and intention to use mobile TV. For the purposes of the study, a total of 256 undergraduate students in South Korea participated in the survey. Overall, uses and gratifications theory is found to be a valid approach to explain people’s attitude and intention to use a mobile TV. Regarding gender effects, the results indicate that motivation for fashion/status is most important for males, while social interaction has the highest impact on female attitude and intention. Theoretical and practical implications are offered; they suggest that the advertising concept needs to be targeted by consumers’ gender.
Christene McCauley and Nick Johnson, ESOMAR, Qualitative Research, Venice, November 2003
In 1999 a study asked men around Europe what they thought of their lives: their jobs, their partners, their kids, their friends, women, sex, advertising? How did this differ by age from 21-65 years? How did it differ by country between the United Kingdom, Ireland, France, Germany and Spain? Four years later, the project assessed what had changed.
In 1999 a study asked men around Europe what they thought of their lives: their jobs, their partners, their kids, their friends, women, sex, advertising? How did this differ by age from 21-65 years? How did it differ by country between the United Kingdom, Ireland, France, Germany and Spain? Four years later, the project assessed what had changed. Had the launch of the Euro, 9/11 and a looming recession made men think differently?
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