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Developmental antecedents to children's responses to online advertising
Wonsun Shin, Jisu Huh and Ronald J. Faber, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 31, No. 4, 2012, pp. 719-740
Many critics have raised concerns about online advertising directed to children. This study investigated the role of several antecedent variables that may impact children’s attitudinal and behavioural responses to online advertising.
Many critics have raised concerns about online advertising directed to children. This study investigated the role of several antecedent variables that may impact children’s attitudinal and behavioural responses to online advertising. Specifically, online ad scepticism, family communication patterns, time spent on the internet, and perceived internet competency were examined as factors that may impact children’s online advertising attitudes and behaviours. A survey conducted with a dyad sample of 381 parents–preteens in South Korea revealed that children with high scepticism towards online advertising, who spent less time using the internet and who perceived lower levels of confidence about their internet skills were more likely to have a negative attitude towards online advertising and less likely to disclose personal information to online marketers. However, the relationship between family communication and children’s responses to online advertising found in this study was inconsistent with the previous empirical findings. Implications of findings are discussed and directions for future research suggested
Behavioural evidence for the effectiveness of threat appeals in the promotion of healthy food to children
Karine M. Charry and Nathalie T.M. Demoulin, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 31, No. 4, 2012, pp. 773-794
The current paper investigates the effectiveness and the persuasion process of threat appeals on children.
The current paper investigates the effectiveness and the persuasion process of threat appeals on children. Disregarded by scholars, probably for ethical reasons, the study of negative appeals targeting 8- to 12-year-olds to promote healthy food seems nevertheless relevant, in the unprecedented context of childhood obesity. To test our assumptions, an experiment was set up with 126 children. Results indicate that the appeal is effective and that the persuasion process of threatening advertisements is led by affective reactions. In contrast to earlier research on older targets, cognitive processes do not improve its effectiveness. Furthermore, exposure to threat appeals increased pre-adolescents’ healthy food consumption in comparison with appeals that may be considered more ‘typical’, such as fun and action. These conclusions and a teleological perspective of ethics invite further study of threat appeals targeting children.
The implicit influence of bimodal brand placement on children: information integration or information interference?
Haiming Hang, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 31, No. 3, 2012, pp. 465-484
This research compares two competing views – the integration view and the interference view – to see whether presenting a brand placement in multiple modalities can enhance its effectiveness.
This research compares two competing views – the integration view and the interference view – to see whether presenting a brand placement in multiple modalities can enhance its effectiveness. Our results first show that majority of the children can not recall a brand placement embedded in a video game. Our results further demonstrate that presenting a brand placement in a single modality makes children more likely to choose the target brand at test than presenting it in multiple modalities. These results have important implications for both public policy makers and marketing managers.
Children's attitudinal reactions to TV advertisements: the African experience
Ayantunji Gbadamosi, Robert E. Hinson, Eddy K. Tukamushaba and Irene Ingunjiri, International Journal of Market Research, Vol. 54, No. 4, 2012, pp. 543-566
This paper is aimed at exploring African children’s attitudinal reactions to television advertisements.
This paper is aimed at exploring African children’s attitudinal reactions to television advertisements. A total of 65 children from four African countries – Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya and Uganda – participated in 12 focus group discussions on the subject matter. Findings suggest that they like television advertising in relation to its entertainment features – especially when the messages feature children characters, cartoons, music, celebrities and humour – and those promoting foods. They also derive excitement from advertising messages that are presented in Pidgin language and/or humorously integrated with local languages. However, they have an aversion to messages that terrify them and those they consider boring. This paper supplements the existing literature on the attitudes of children to advertising, but from Africa as a different contextual platform. It also suggests directions for the effective use of marketing communications strategies in relation to television advertising for marketers and other bodies with special roles in communicating with children such as government agencies and NGOs.
Using Adolescent eHealth Literacy to Weigh Trust in Commercial Web Sites: The More Children Know, the Tougher They Are to Persuade
Thomas Hove, Hye-Jin Paek and Thomas Isaacson, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 51, No. 3, 2011, pp. 524-537
As consumers improve their eHealth literacy skills, their trust in commercial Web sites - even ones that provide reliable information - might decrease.
As consumers improve their eHealth literacy skills, their trust in commercial Web sites - even ones that provide reliable information - might decrease. Informed by the persuasion knowledge model, this study examined how much adolescents trusted and relied on commercial and brand Web sites as a source of health information. Both before and after an eHealth literacy intervention among 182 middle-schoolers, students perceived commercial and brand Web sites to be the least reliable and trustworthy sources of health information. Practical and managerial implications are discussed regarding advertisers' efforts in the age of new media to uphold social responsibility and regain consumer trust.
Parental Style: The Implications of What We Know (and Think We Know)
Les Carlson, Russell N. Laczniak and Chad Wertley, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 51, No. 2, 2011, pp. 427-435
This article presents a synthesis of our prior work in consumer socialization of children. We focus discussion on parents as consumer-socialization agents and offer a review of the effects of parents as agents of children’s consumer socialization as moderated by parental styles.
This article presents a synthesis of our prior work in consumer socialization of children. We focus discussion on parents as consumer-socialization agents and offer a review of the effects of parents as agents of children’s consumer socialization as moderated by parental styles. Our research has uncovered one particular parental style—“authoritatives”—that appears to be more engaged in consumer socialization. We also review the more limited work on how parental styles may actually influence children and suggest avenues for future research that incorporates the parental style framework. These additional research possibilities include investigating what inherent parental characteristics may account for regarding the unique consumer-socialization formats that parents may use with children.
Children's understanding of advertisers' persuasive tactics
Esther Rozendaal, Moniek Buijzen and Patti Valkenburg, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 30, No. 2, 2011, pp. 329-350
The aim of this study was to investigate children’s understanding of six popular tactics used by advertisers to elicit certain advertising effects, including ad repetition, product demonstration, peer popularity appeal, humour, celebrity endorsement and premiums.
The aim of this study was to investigate children’s understanding of six popular tactics used by advertisers to elicit certain advertising effects, including ad repetition, product demonstration, peer popularity appeal, humour, celebrity endorsement and premiums. We first asked 34 advertisers of child products to indicate what kind of effects (e.g. ad or product recall, learning and liking) they intend to elicit by using each of the six tactics. Subsequently, in a survey among 209 children (aged 8–12) and 96 adults (>18), we investigated the extent to which children understood advertisers’ intended effects of these tactics and how this compared to an adult benchmark. Results showed that children’s understanding of advertisers’ tactics increased progressively between the ages of 8 and 12, showing a significant increase around age 10. The age at which children reach an adult level of understanding differed by tactic. For example, the use of celebrity endorsement was generally understood at an earlier age than other tactics, whereas product demonstration was understood at a later age.
The importance of product involvement for predicting advertising effectiveness among young people
Tali Te’eni-Harari and Sam N. Lehman-Wilzig and Shlomo I. Lampert, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 28, No. 2, 2009, pp. 203-229
The current study investigates the role of the product involvement variable in advertising information processing among young people in Israel, aged 4–15, in tandem with three other relevant variables: age group, type of argument and character attractiveness.
The current study investigates the role of the product involvement variable in advertising information processing among young people in Israel, aged 4–15, in tandem with three other relevant variables: age group, type of argument and character attractiveness. The results indicate that ad effectiveness: is significantly and positively influenced by product involvement; is significantly and negatively influenced by age group; is influenced in part by type of argument; and is not influenced by the character in the ad. The article offers several explanations and presents relevant ramifications regarding the results, especially the importance of product involvement for young people in enhancing advertising effectiveness.
"Some Assembly Required": Comparing Disclaimers in Children’s TV Advertising in Turkey and the United States
Aysen Bakir, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 49, No. 1, Mar 2009, pp. 93-103
Disclaimers in advertisements might strongly influence how advertising is produced and presented to the public.
Disclaimers in advertisements might strongly influence how advertising is produced and presented to the public. Examining how marketers use such disclaimers in different countries is an important part of understanding how advertising reaches out to children. To date, studies of disclaimers with respect to children have only focused on U.S. advertising. This study examines differences in how disclaimers are used in both Turkish and U.S. children’s television commercials.
Comments - Effects of advertising on children
Sonia Livingstone, Sonia Dickinson and and Donna Gill, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 28, No. 1, 2009, pp. 169-178
This Comments section discusses the ways in which women are being depicted in contemporary advertisements.
This Comments section discusses the ways in which women are being depicted in contemporary advertisements. New thinking relating to these issues is valuable as it sheds helpful light on these complex subjects. Both will be addressed by the learned commentaries included in this issue. The first of the essays is written by Sonia Livingstone at London School of Economics; she tackles the thorny ethical issue of the effects of advertising on children. She argues that the debate is particularly relevant given that advertising regulations involving today’s pervasive platforms (e.g. online, mobile and gaming) will be of prime interest for policy makers in 2009. Her point is that while there are three important aspects to this argument – (1) literacy (can children understand the persuasive intent of advertising?), (2) influence (do children have sufficient advertising literacy to arm them with cognitive defences?), and (3) fairness (is advertising to children by nature unfair?). The second essay is from Sonia Dickinson and Donna Gill at Curtin University of Technology; they address whether there is evidence that women are actually offended by their portrayals in advertising. They suggest that the determination of whether a particular portrayal is offensive is not dependent simply on whether or not the ad is seen as ethical, but that there are other factors involved. They suggest that offence will also be affected by such variables as context, similarity of the viewer to the message source as well as the similarity of the product or brand with the receiver’s self-esteem or lifestyle. Another factor affecting this process would be the level of scepticism of the viewer to advertising.
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