or call us: +1 202 778 0680
Content & Partners
What Our Clients Say
Warc in the News
Write for Warc
Terms & Conditions
Request a Trial
Magazines & Journals
Books & Reports
Do I Subscribe?
ALL OF WARC
Pinpoint the case evidence you need – search by industry, objective, media and more.
Case summaries showcasing leading brands achieving key marketing objectives.
Creative TV and video executions from the most innovative and market-leading brands.
Browse campaigns from the world's leading advertising and marketing effectiveness awards.
The latest from our annual case study competitions.
Rankings of the world's most effective agencies, advertisers and brands.
The latest on 80+ key topics
Media & Channels
Latest industry-focused insights
Apparel & Accessories
Government & Non-profit
Household & Domestic
Media & Entertainment
Pharmaceutical & Health
Toiletries & Cosmetics
Travel & Tourism
Marketing advice and assistance
In-depth analysis of 200 global brand owners
Key Warc papers on marketing best practice
Quick one-stop overviews of major marketing themes
Browse all Warc papers and case studies by subject
Latest reports from Warc and trusted partners offering unique insights into current trends.
The driving forces behind consumer behaviour.
New developments for industries and sectors.
Strategic insight for the marketing of brands.
Media & Tech
Latest innovations in media and technology.
Insight and intelligence for countries and regions.
Daily coverage of key developments for marketers worldwide.
The Warc Blog
Insights, opinions and fresh new thinking from our team of bloggers around the world.
Advertising expenditure by medium in 80 markets, plus forecasts and media costs for key countries.
Key briefings from major conferences and events in the US, Europe and Asia Pacific.
Plan your schedule of must-attend events with our global calendar of conferences.
Review your contact details and public profile.
Choose and review which topics to follow.
Choose and review which brands to follow.
Your Email Updates
Select and manage the emails you receive.
Contact your dedicated Client Services Manager.
Put our research team at your service.
REFINE YOUR RESULTS BY:
Enter a search term:
Drink and beverage
Motor and auto
Journal of Advertising Research
Int. Journal of Advertising
Int. Journal of Market Research
ESOMAR Conference papers
ARF Experiential Learning
Date: newest first
Date: oldest first
Discriminating between behaviour using market data from panels
Hsiu-Yuan Tsao, Leyland Pitt and Colin Campbell, International Journal of Market Research, Digital First, August 2013
Considerable research exists on stochastic models of switching behaviour that uses sequences of individual-level purchase data.
Considerable research exists on stochastic models of switching behaviour that uses sequences of individual-level purchase data. While at the individual level, sample size and sequence length are limiting factors, at the aggregate level, heterogeneity with respect to purchase sequences may assist in interpreting results. The authors propose an approach to discriminate between the switching behaviour of variety seeking, indifference and reinforcement. Only the proportion of 100% loyal customers, market share data and an estimation of the promotional effect - information all available from consumer panel data - are necessary to fit the model.
Nielsen Personalizes the Mobile Shopping App: If You Build the Technology, They Will Come
Dave Cameron, Chris Gregory and Daryl Battaglia, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 52, No. 3, 2012, pp. 333-338
A transition to new digital channels is transforming the age-old marketing practice of couponing. By personalizing the display of coupons, retailers and marketers can help consumers cut through the coupon clutter and more easily find the coupons that will motivate them to purchase.
A transition to new digital channels is transforming the age-old marketing practice of couponing. By personalizing the display of coupons, retailers and marketers can help consumers cut through the coupon clutter and more easily find the coupons that will motivate them to purchase. Through a study with a grocery retailer, their iPhone app and four CPG manufacturers, Nielsen personalized the mobile display sorting the most relevant coupons to the top based on a three-pronged scoring model. Using a test versus control design, personalization yielded higher overall coupon redemptions, and more redemptions for brands and products that are new to a consumer.
Exploding the Legend of Television Advertising and Price Promotions: The Proper Mix of Price, InStore, and TV for Maximum Short- and Long-Term ROI
Bill Harvey, Terese Herbig, Matthew Keylock, Ritesh Aggarwal and Nina Lerner, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 52, No. 3, 2012, pp. 339-345
The advertising and marketing communities traditionally have understood television advertising effectiveness and its relationship to in-store marketing tactics through small-market research or marketing-mix modeling.
The advertising and marketing communities traditionally have understood television advertising effectiveness and its relationship to in-store marketing tactics through small-market research or marketing-mix modeling. Although these studies have improved the quality of advertising-effectiveness research, they have done little to improve the tools marketers need to translate those insights on a larger scale and optimize their marketing allocations. With the proliferation of “big data,” researchers now have the ability to refine those tools and give marketers a more granular understanding of brand-purchase behavior and the impact of multiple marketing levers on in-store brand sales. This paper leverages the anonymous household-level purchase behavior data from 60 million households across the United States and the second-by-second measurement of television-viewing habits from more than 2 million set-top box households, and the current study applies actual (non-modeled) single-source, household-level data to demonstrate a methodology for optimizing the mix of television advertising and in-store marketing.
The Power of Before and After: How the Dirichlet Can Analyze the Sales Impact of a Promotional Activity
James McCabe, Philip Stern and Scott G. Dacko, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 52, No. 2, 2012, pp. 214-224
The Dirichlet is a well-established theoretical model that describes and predicts patterns of purchasing behavior in stationary markets.
The Dirichlet is a well-established theoretical model that describes and predicts patterns of purchasing behavior in stationary markets. This paper uses data from a highly nonstationary market to demonstrate that the Dirichlet norms also provide a baseline to interpret change in purchasing behavior—in particular, change wrought by sustained promotional activity. The empirical analysis of industrial purchasing data describes how one supplier more than doubled its share of the market. This share increase was achieved by, first, securing a higher share of the category purchases made by heavy buyers (increasing purchase frequency) before adopting a more typical growth strategy of attracting more buyers (increasing penetration).
Optimizing in-store trade promotion and television for maximum short-term and long-term return on investment
Bill Harvey, Terese Herbig and Matthew Keylock, ARF Experiential Learning, Re:think conference, 2012
This paper describes how dunnhumbyUSA and TRA apply a non-modelled methodology for optimising the mix of TV advertising and in-store marketing.
This paper describes how dunnhumbyUSA and TRA apply a non-modelled methodology for optimising the mix of TV advertising and in-store marketing. Their approach uses purchase behaviour data from 60m US households and second-by-second measurement of TV viewing habits from more than 2m households. The research quantifies the synergy of the three strongest drivers of positive brand purchase change - pricing, in-store display and television advertising - by focusing on heavily-advertised CPG brands within the toothpaste, yoghurt and cereal categories. The report provides marketers with examples of the types of findings this single-source, household-level methodology can produce. One of the findings was that the simulataneous use of TV advertising, in-store display and a temporary price reduction maximises the positive impact on brand sales, more than 11 times the sales effect of TV advertising alone.
A study of personalization and the mobile coupon application user
Dave Cameron, Chris Gregory and Daryl Battaglia, ARF Experiential Learning, Re:think conference, 2012
This report summarises the findings of a pilot study conducted by Nielsen in partnership with a retailer and four CPG manufacturers on the effects of personalising mobile coupons.
This report summarises the findings of a pilot study conducted by Nielsen in partnership with a retailer and four CPG manufacturers on the effects of personalising mobile coupons. The study involved the retailer launching a new iPhone app that distributed coupons, which used a predicative model to identify the most relevant promotions for each consumer and display those promotions more prominently. The pilot aimed to identify the typical profile of a mobile app/coupon user and the effects of personalisation on coupon redemption and sales. Findings included that users of the app tended to be the retailer's more loyal shoppers, spanned all age ranges and were more likely to have children. The research also emphasised the importance of putting the most relevant coupon for the customer in the most prominent position, as it is significantly more likely to get redeemed. Ultimately, the report argues that personalisation has benefits for the consumer, retailer and manufacturer.
Using supermarket loyalty card data to analyse the impact of promotions
Melanie Felgate, Andrew Fearne, Salvatore DiFalco and Marian Garcia Martinez, International Journal of Market Research, Vol. 54, No. 2, 2012, pp. 221-240
The aim of this paper is to show how supermarket loyalty card data from a panel of over 1.4 million shoppers can be used to analyse the effect of price promotions in a way which can bring significant advantages to retailers and manufacturers when making promotional decisions.
The aim of this paper is to show how supermarket loyalty card data from a panel of over 1.4 million shoppers can be used to analyse the effect of price promotions in a way which can bring significant advantages to retailers and manufacturers when making promotional decisions. The paper demonstrates the significant advantages that loyalty card data can bring to enhance our understanding of promotions, compared to traditional scanner and panel datasets. Regression analysis is used to compare the effects of different promotional mechanics upon different tiers of product across the fresh beef category in Tesco, using both scanner data and loyalty card data. The results show that using loyalty card data, which enables us to moderate for specific shopper characteristics, produces more statistically significant results and provides a more detailed picture of how promotions influence sales.
Predicting Premium Proneness
Gerard P. Prendergast, Alex S. L. Tsang and Derek T.Y. Poon, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 48, No. 2, June 2008, pp. 287-296
A premium is a free gift offered to consumers when they purchase a product, and marketers in many product categories are using them as a sales promotional tool.
A premium is a free gift offered to consumers when they purchase a product, and marketers in many product categories are using them as a sales promotional tool. That consumers should be prone to buying products with premiums, therefore, is of obvious importance to marketers. This study investigated deal proneness, compulsive-buying tendency, time pressure, and variety-seeking tendency as predictors of premium proneness. The results of a survey with a sample of consumers suggest that all the factors, except time pressure, predict premium proneness. Recommendations are made for marketers regarding how to capitalize on these drivers of premium proneness in order to maximize the marketing impact of their premium-based promotions.
Enhancing food promotion in the supermarket industry: a framework for sales promotion success
Lisa S. Simpson, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 25, No. 2, 2006, pp. 223-245
Sales promotion research has tended to be narrow in focus, emphasizing one particular tool (generally price discounting) and comparing the usefulness of the technique with advertising, for example.
Sales promotion research has tended to be narrow in focus, emphasizing one particular tool (generally price discounting) and comparing the usefulness of the technique with advertising, for example. In contrast, this study identifies channel issues such as trust and the sharing of objectives, market development and industry structure as vital to the successful use of sales promotions in the supermarket retail environment.
Behavioural response to sales promotion tools: a Hong Kong study
Gerard Prendergast, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 24, No. 4, 2005, pp. 467-486
Supermarkets are heavy users of sales promotion devices and need to be able to assess the effectiveness of these tools.
Supermarkets are heavy users of sales promotion devices and need to be able to assess the effectiveness of these tools. Consumer response (brand switching, purchase acceleration, stockpiling, product trial, spending more) to five different sales promotion tools (price discounts, in-store demonstrations, coupons, sweepstakes and games, and ‘buy one get one free’) was investigated through a survey of 206 supermarket shoppers in Hong Kong. Price discounts and buy-one-get- one-free offers were felt by the consumers to be the most effective promotional tools for inducing purchase acceleration, stockpiling and spending more. In-store demonstrations were felt to be mainly effective in encouraging product trial. Coupons were considered effective mainly in inducing stockpiling and purchase acceleration. Sweepstakes and games, in contrast, were felt to be relatively ineffective in terms of generating all types of consumer response. Recommendations for marketers are presented, along with suggested directions for future research.
YOU ARE IN THE WARC INDEX:
Other below the line
Other below the line
Experiential and event marketing
Packaging and design
Short-term effects of communications
Licensing children's products
, your search results have been restricted to items that contain .
To search for
without automatic phrasing
(this will find items containing all the words in your search term, but not only as a phrase).
If you want to search for other exact phrases, simply put your terms in quotes. There is more about search on the
Our Content & Partners
Terms & Conditions
© 2013 Copyright and Database Rights owned by Warc