or call us: +1 202 778 0680
Content & Partners
What Our Clients Say
Warc in the News
Write for Warc
Terms & Conditions
Request a Trial
Magazines & Journals
Books & Reports
Do I Subscribe?
ALL OF WARC
Pinpoint the case evidence you need – search by industry, objective, media and more.
Case summaries showcasing leading brands achieving key marketing objectives.
Creative TV and video executions from the most innovative and market-leading brands.
Browse campaigns from the world's leading advertising and marketing effectiveness awards.
The latest from our annual case study competitions.
Rankings of the world's most effective agencies, advertisers and brands.
The latest on 80+ key topics
Media & Channels
Latest industry-focused insights
Apparel & Accessories
Government & Non-profit
Household & Domestic
Media & Entertainment
Pharmaceutical & Health
Toiletries & Cosmetics
Travel & Tourism
Marketing advice and assistance
In-depth analysis of 200 global brand owners
Key Warc papers on marketing best practice
Quick one-stop overviews of major marketing themes
Browse all Warc papers and case studies by subject
Latest reports from Warc and trusted partners offering unique insights into current trends.
The driving forces behind consumer behaviour.
New developments for industries and sectors.
Strategic insight for the marketing of brands.
Media & Tech
Latest innovations in media and technology.
Insight and intelligence for countries and regions.
Daily coverage of key developments for marketers worldwide.
The Warc Blog
Insights, opinions and fresh new thinking from our team of bloggers around the world.
Advertising expenditure by medium in 80 markets, plus forecasts and media costs for key countries.
Key briefings from major conferences and events in the US, Europe and Asia Pacific.
Plan your schedule of must-attend events with our global calendar of conferences.
Review your contact details and public profile.
Choose and review which topics to follow.
Choose and review which brands to follow.
Your Email Updates
Select and manage the emails you receive.
Contact your dedicated Client Services Manager.
Put our research team at your service.
REFINE YOUR RESULTS BY:
Enter a search term:
Motor and auto
Government and non-profit
Business and industrial
Drink and beverage
Leisure and entertainment
ESOMAR Conference papers
Int. Journal of Market Research
MRS Conference Papers
Journal of Advertising Research
Date: newest first
Date: oldest first
Best of Both Worlds?: Can we make convenience samples representative?
Pete Doe and Robert Smith, ESOMAR, Congress, Istanbul, September 2013
This paper discusses the reliability of online panel data, considering the issue of sample bias by examining different methods of selecting and weighting samples from panels.
This paper discusses the reliability of online panel data, considering the issue of sample bias by examining different methods of selecting and weighting samples from panels. Many companies have large online respondent panels which allow data and insight to be generated quickly and cheaply. However, the methods used to recruit respondents are not scientific and suffer from self-selection. Sample matching against a smaller, but statistically representative panel has been suggested as a means to reduce sample bias and to enable a statistically representative sample to be selected. This paper examines the extent to which bias can be reduced using this approach, and the relevant factors that must be taken into account.
Measuring Up: Impact of mobile and segmentation on respondent behaviour
Aaron Jue and Kristin Luck, ESOMAR, Congress, Istanbul, September 2013
This paper discusses the supposed decline in survey respondents' attention span by examining the results of a study on respondents who access online surveys from mobile devices.
This paper discusses the supposed decline in survey respondents' attention span by examining the results of a study on respondents who access online surveys from mobile devices. The study used data from surveys conducted by ecommerce companies and only used surveys which were designed for online use but taken on mobile, to create a mobile survey behaviour baseline. The types of surveys examined included both short and complex surveys, and long surveys that could be segmented. Initial results suggested that this area was quickly developing, and so results were updated six months after the initial findings. The paper uses the latest results to analyse the best ways to reach respondents.
Multimode, Global Scale Usage: Understanding respondent scale usage across borders and devices
Melanie Courtright, Kartik Pashupati, Annie Pettit and Roddy Knowles, ESOMAR, Best Methodological Paper Award, Congress, Istanbul, September 2013
This paper discusses survey response styles, considering the personal characteristics - such as gender, age and nationality - which create response style and the difference between response style in online, telephone and other surveys.
This paper discusses survey response styles, considering the personal characteristics - such as gender, age and nationality - which create response style and the difference between response style in online, telephone and other surveys. Response style is a person's tendency to systematically respond to questionnaire items regardless of content, e.g. by giving extreme or mid-point responses on a scale. The impact of dropping or retaining the neutral point on scales is examined and the reliability of different measurement scales compared. Amongst the findings, the research showed that men are more likely to use the negative side of the scale, while women are most likely to use the extreme positive side. Guidelines for designing global online and mobile surveys which take response style into account are developed.
Should the third reminder be sent? The role of survey response timing on web survey results
Kumar Rao and Julia Pennington, International Journal of Market Research, Vol. 55, No. 5, 2013, pp. 651-674
Decreasing survey response rates are a growing concern as survey estimates may be biased by selective non-response.
Decreasing survey response rates are a growing concern as survey estimates may be biased by selective non-response. One method of assessing non-response bias is to examine the timing of survey response, specifically comparing those who respond late to a survey with those who respond early. This paper draws upon data obtained from multiple panel surveys conducted over a six-month period, and examines whether early, intermediate and late respondents differ significantly in demographics or in their responses to survey questions. By considering response timing as a repeated behaviour, or habit, spanning multiple surveys, a longitudinal measure of response timing is developed to identify the predictors of responding early to multiple surveys conducted over a period of time. Results indicate some directional differences in demographics and better data quality from early respondents, compared to their intermediate and late counterparts. We discuss the findings from the study and conclude with recommendations for future research.
Let their fingers do the talking? Using the Implicit Association Test in market research
Aiden P. Gregg, James Klymowsky, Dominic Owens and Alex Perryman , International Journal of Market Research, Vol. 55, No. 4, 2013, pp. 487-503
Self-report methodologies – such as surveys and interviews – elicit responses that are vulnerable to a number of standard biases.
Self-report methodologies – such as surveys and interviews – elicit responses that are vulnerable to a number of standard biases. These biases include social desirability, self-deception and a lack of self-insight. However, indirect measures, such as the Implicit Association Test (IAT), offer a potential means of bypassing such biases. Here, we evaluate the scope for using the IAT in market research, drawing on recent empirical findings. We conclude that the IAT meets several desirable criteria: it yields consistent results, possesses predictive power, offers unique advantages, is relevant to commercial issues and poses no insuperable challenges to adoption.
Distortion in retrospective measures of word of mouth
Robert East, Mark D. Uncles, Jenni Romaniuk and Chris Hand, International Journal of Market Research, Vol. 55, No. 4, 2013, pp. 477-486
When respondents are asked to report on past behaviour, their responses may be affected by an unknown level of measurement error.
When respondents are asked to report on past behaviour, their responses may be affected by an unknown level of measurement error. This casts doubt on the findings from retrospective surveys. There is evidence that measurement error is a function of the interval between an experience and the time when the experience is reported. In this study, the volume of word of mouth (WOM) is measured as a function of this interval. Both positive and negative WOM (PWOM, NWOM) show little change with interval, which indicates that recall measures of the volume of WOM are quite reliable and may be used with confidence. Possible distorting influences on retrospective measures are discussed.
Beyond Big Data: How Big Data needs consumer insights in order to realise it's full potential
Colin Strong, ESOMAR, 3D Digital Dimensions, Boston, June 2013
This paper critiques the current Big Data agenda and argues that the market research industry will need to be instrumental in delivering new forms of analytics - one which brings together the strategic understanding of the researcher with the technology that enables the interrogation of Big Data.
This paper critiques the current Big Data agenda and argues that the market research industry will need to be instrumental in delivering new forms of analytics - one which brings together the strategic understanding of the researcher with the technology that enables the interrogation of Big Data. The paper describes the potential benefits of Big Data such as targeting, profiling and predictive techniques but also highlights the importance of understanding context, which, if overlooked can lead to bias and misinterpretation. Finding people with the right skillset is emphasised and the author concludes that the much sought after skill set to execute the Big Data agenda is present within the research industry.
The role of topic interest and topic salience in online panel web surveys
Florian Keusch, International Journal of Market Research, Vol. 55, No. 1, 2013, pp. 59-80
Invitations to web surveys sent out through online access panels usually do not mention the topic of the survey, in order to reduce the risk of expert bias.
Invitations to web surveys sent out through online access panels usually do not mention the topic of the survey, in order to reduce the risk of expert bias. This study aims to elucidate whether online access panel members use the information on survey topic provided in email invitations in their participation decision and its influence on data quality. In a preliminary study, data about the personal interests of 1,660 panel members were collected. Panellists were then assigned to participate in one of two surveys, receiving emails with different amount of information on the survey topic. The influence of personal topic interest and topic salience on participation behaviour and data quality was measured. Evidence is presented that personal interest in the topic influences participation behaviour and data quality in online panels. Panellists who had been enrolled in the online panel for six months or less were more willing to participate if the topic of the survey was announced in advance.
Brand measurement scales and underlying cognitive dimensions
Marco Visentin, Mariachiara Colucci and Gian Luca Marzocchi, International Journal of Market Research, Vol. 55, No. 1, 2013, pp. 43-57
The aim of this exploratory research is to compare a well-known scale, the Aaker brand personality scale, with an empirical scale based on individuals’ relevant attributes, in order to analyse why they can lead to similar brand positioning maps.
The aim of this exploratory research is to compare a well-known scale, the Aaker brand personality scale, with an empirical scale based on individuals’ relevant attributes, in order to analyse why they can lead to similar brand positioning maps. We provide empirical evidence of how a bias can overwrite the ability of a measurement scale to actually measure its underlying construct. In order to do so, we first find that the two sets of attributes – one derived from the brand personality scale, the other reflecting attributes obtained through a focus group – span common cognitive representations when translated into perceptual maps. We then prove that this outcome is caused by a bias stemming from a more holistic view of the brand, which forces the two cognitive structures towards a common perceptual representation. We conclude discussing the challenges for current theory implicit in our findings, and the implications for managerial practice.
More scales than a fish?
Michael Cramphorn, International Journal of Market Research, Vol. 54, No. 6, 2012, pp. 739-749
Verbal scales are intrinsic to attitude measurement. One approach is to employ agreement–disagreement scales.
Verbal scales are intrinsic to attitude measurement. One approach is to employ agreement–disagreement scales. However, when inter-country comparisons will be made, it cannot be presumed that results will be directly comparable. Different verbal usages often prevail, even where the language is the same. Variations in the patterns of response across cultures and languages are non-systemic, the consequence of which is that single overall country adjustments should not be used. Focusing on meaningful measurement can yield scales that provide real comparability.
YOU ARE IN THE WARC INDEX:
Issues and standards
Respondent quality and bias
Issues and standards
Attitudes to market research
Industry status and trends
Market research codes of conduct
Market research quality standards
Market research recruitment and training
Researching sensitive topics
Response rates, co-operation, engagement
Online market research
Reliability of qualitative research
, your search results have been restricted to items that contain .
To search for
without automatic phrasing
(this will find items containing all the words in your search term, but not only as a phrase).
If you want to search for other exact phrases, simply put your terms in quotes. There is more about search on the
Our Content & Partners
Terms & Conditions
© 2013 Copyright and Database Rights owned by Warc