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Informed, uninformed and participative consent in social media research
Daniel Nunan and Baskin Yenicioglu, International Journal of Market Research, Vol. 55, No. 6, 2013, pp. 791-808
The use of online data is becoming increasingly essential for the generation of insight in today’s research environment.
The use of online data is becoming increasingly essential for the generation of insight in today’s research environment. This reflects the much wider range of data available online and the key role that social media now plays in interpersonal communication. However, the process of gaining permission to use social media data for research purposes creates a number of significant issues when considering compatibility with professional ethics guidelines. This paper critically explores the application of existing informed consent policies to social media research and compares with the form of consent gained by the social networks themselves, which we label ‘uninformed consent’. We argue that, as currently constructed, informed consent carries assumptions about the nature of privacy that are not consistent with the way that consumers behave in an online environment. On the other hand, uninformed consent relies on asymmetric relationships that are unlikely to succeed in an environment based on co-creation of value. The paper highlights the ethical ambiguity created by current approaches for gaining customer consent, and proposes a new conceptual framework based on participative consent that allows for greater alignment between consumer privacy and ethical concerns.
Ads are watching me - A view from the interplay between anthropomorphism and customisation
Marina Puzakova, Joseph F. Rocereto and Hyokjin Kwak, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 32, No. 4, 2013, pp. 513-538
With the advancement of technological platforms, the use of recommendation agents that can provide highly customisable solutions has become more ubiquitous.
With the advancement of technological platforms, the use of recommendation agents that can provide highly customisable solutions has become more ubiquitous. Marketing academics and practitioners alike have begun to investigate various communication styles and functionality designs of such decision aid systems. One variant of a design of a recommendation agent is to imbue it with humanlike features (i.e. to anthropomorphise it). However, academic research is silent with respect to whether this type of design would lead to more favourable consumer evaluations. To fill this gap, our research investigates the downstream consequences of anthropomorphising a recommendation agent, when the recommendation itself may require the exchange of personally sensitive information, and the message is customised. The results of two experiments reveal that, when a message is customised, the effect of an anthropomorphised recommendation agent on attitude towards the advertisement is predominantly negative and is mediated by consumers’ unwillingness to provide personal information to an anthropomorphic recommendation agent, as well as by greater psychological resistance towards the advertisement. Our research concludes with theoretical and practical implications, as well as further research directions.
Market research and the ethics of big data
Daniel Nunan and MariaLaura Di Domenico , International Journal of Market Research, Vol. 55, No. 4, 2013, pp. 505-520
The term 'big data' has recently emerged to describe a range of technological and commercial trends enabling the storage and analysis of huge amounts of customer data, such as that generated by social networks and mobile devices.
The term 'big data' has recently emerged to describe a range of technological and commercial trends enabling the storage and analysis of huge amounts of customer data, such as that generated by social networks and mobile devices. Much of the commercial promise of big data is in the ability to generate valuable insights from collecting new types and volumes of data in ways that were not previously economically viable. At the same time a number of questions have been raised about the implications for individual privacy. This paper explores key perspectives underlying the emergence of big data, and considers both the opportunities and ethical challenges raised for market research.
Researching children: are we getting it right? A discussion of ethics
Agnes Nairn and Barbie Clarke, International Journal of Market Research, Vol. 54, No. 2, 2012, pp. 177-198
As the role of children in society becomes more prominent, their participation in research seems set to increase.
As the role of children in society becomes more prominent, their participation in research seems set to increase. In this paper we review whether we are getting the ethics of children’s research right. We show that, since the late 1980s, children have been treated universally as a special case and that they have been accorded their own special set of human rights (UNCRC), which primarily grants them rights to protection and participation. We go on to argue (with practical examples) that the core MRS research principles of well-being, voluntary informed consent and privacy/confidentiality must be applied to children with particular caution and care. We note that, as research with children grows and as new techniques are developed, we are presented with fresh challenges for keeping children safe and maintaining their trust. We end by presenting the results of a survey that sought children’s views on being research participants in a quite sensitive piece of research. We found that children are highly appreciative of being consulted about their lives in general and being asked about their feelings. However we also found that some children can be uncomfortable with some of the issues raised and can feel compelled to answer the questions. We conclude that, while we have good industry codes, ethics evolves with shifting social, political and cultural patterns, and we need to keep challenging ourselves to maintain best practice.
Benchmarking the Use of QR Code in Mobile Promotion: Three Studies in Japan
Shintaro Okazaki, Hairong Li and Morikazu Hirose, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 52, No. 1, 2012, pp. 102-117
As a shortcut for mobile input, quick response (QR) code is increasingly being integrated in cross-media advertising campaigns in many countries of the world.
As a shortcut for mobile input, quick response (QR) code is increasingly being integrated in cross-media advertising campaigns in many countries of the world. Questions remain, however, about its actual use in different media, the motivations for consumers to use it and, especially, the perceived risks associated with using QR code. This study represents an initial exploration into these important issues. Findings from three studies in Japan indicate that QR codes are largely used in print media for promoting loyalty programs; convenience, savings, and quality are drivers of QR-code use; and perceived risks vary among different contexts in which consumers scan QR codes. Implications are presented for the effective use of QR code in mobile promotion.
Digital trends forecast 2012
Dominic Harrison, ESOMAR, 3D Digital Dimensions, Miami, October 2011
In this scene-setting presentation, Future Foundation will draw upon its extensive global research programme (including quantitative and qualitative elements) to signpost the key digital trends characterising the habits and expectations of diverse contemporary global consumers in 2012, and beyond.
In this scene-setting presentation, Future Foundation will draw upon its extensive global research programme (including quantitative and qualitative elements) to signpost the key digital trends characterising the habits and expectations of diverse contemporary global consumers in 2012, and beyond. From the monitoring of personal metrics via sophisticated mobile devices to the growth of digital payments, Future Foundation will present the key trends we expect to grow in the decade of 2010, complete with insightful implications for brands and societies alike.
Making the Case for Enhanced Advertising Ethics: How a New Way of Thinking About Advertising Ethics May Build Consumer Trust
Wally Snyder, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 51, No. 3, 2011, pp. 477-483
This article presents the case to advertising professionals for the need to enhance advertising ethics in order to build consumer trust in the company and its brands.
This article presents the case to advertising professionals for the need to enhance advertising ethics in order to build consumer trust in the company and its brands. It cites research showing that consumers do not trust advertising much of the time. Key ethical concerns are discussed, including children's advertising, the blurring of advertising with news and entertainment, and behavioral advertising. In the end, it is the responsibility of the ad professionals to resolve ethical concerns proactively, and they must be encouraged to do so from the top down, and given clear permission to express their concerns.
Online Privacy Trustmarks: Enhancing the Perceived Ethics of Digital Advertising
Andrea J.S. Stanaland, May O. Lwin and Anthony D. Miyazaki, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 51, No. 3, 2011, pp. 511-523
Consumer views of advertiser ethics are of industry concern due to growing consumer angst regarding data privacy and behavioral advertising.
Consumer views of advertiser ethics are of industry concern due to growing consumer angst regarding data privacy and behavioral advertising. Several privacy trustmarks have been created to address consumer concerns, potentially acting as seals of approval regarding privacy practices. The authors examine whether a privacy trustmark's ability to influence consumer perceptions of advertiser ethics and privacy concerns is moderated by consumer desire for privacy and attitude toward advertising in general. Using an online advertising context, the results show that a privacy trustmark can enhance the perceived ethics of an online advertiser for certain market segments but not for others.
License to Peek? a Primer On Data Collection On Digital Platforms
George Pappachen and Richard Coombe, ESOMAR, Congress Odyssey, Athens, September 2010
Privacy and data protection are assessed from a historical perspective through to the present in this presentation.
Privacy and data protection are assessed from a historical perspective through to the present in this presentation. The presenters address observable trends, developments and novel platforms that starkly present the opportunities and challenges we encounter in this area and introduce directional insight into consumer expectations about data collection and behavior of digital platforms. The somewhat competing interests of reliability or accuracy versus privacy are introduced and the presentation concludes with a look into cross-sector partnerships which are intended to facilitate data sharing but which strain the distinct obligations that separate industries may impose.
Research with children and schools: a researcher's recipe for successful access
Katja Jezkova Isaksen and Stuart Roper, International Journal of Market Research, Vol. 52, No. 3, 2010, pp. 293-308
Despite the growing literature surrounding child research, little has been written about how to access samples of children – specifically within schools.
Despite the growing literature surrounding child research, little has been written about how to access samples of children – specifically within schools. For this reason, this paper aims to highlight potential barriers to access and provide practical guidance for child researchers wishing to work with schools. The guidance given is drawn from the experience of a doctoral researcher in a UK university, examining ‘the social and psychological impact of branding on adolescents’. Over the course of three years, over 60 schools were contacted, 13 accessed and data collected from over 1000 teenagers (13–15 year olds). The data collected were of both a qualitative and quantitative nature, and the sample size required ranged from four to 500 participants. Through a series of anecdotes and examples, this paper aims to equip (specifically novice) researchers with the essential knowledge needed to maximise their chances of access. This knowledge includes practical advice surrounding who to contact, how best to contact them, what to expect from them and, importantly, what can go wrong when working with schools as institutions.
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