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Practitioner Views of Comparative Advertising: How Practices Have Changed in Two Decades
Fred K. Beard, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 53, No. 3, 2013, pp. 313-323
A replication of a 1989 survey of senior advertising agency creative practitioners shows that their views remain quite favorable toward comparative advertising that explicitly identifies competitors.
A replication of a 1989 survey of senior advertising agency creative practitioners shows that their views remain quite favorable toward comparative advertising that explicitly identifies competitors. Although significant differences between the two studies show that today’s top creative people express somewhat less confidence in the relative effectiveness of comparative advertising, the findings also show that they are significantly more confident that they understand under what conditions it will be effective. Differences between the original survey and its replication suggest important directions for future research on comparative advertising.
The Tri-Mediation Model of persuasion: a case for negative political advertising?
Keith Coulter, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 27, No. 5, 2008, pp. 853-883
In this paper, the effects of positive versus negative (political) advertising are modelled. The findings show that positive as well as two different types of negative advertising will lead viewers to formulate specific attitudes towards the brand (sponsor).
In this paper, the effects of positive versus negative (political) advertising are modelled. The findings show that positive as well as two different types of negative advertising will lead viewers to formulate specific attitudes towards the brand (sponsor). However, the manner in which these attitudes are formed will be affected by ad type and argument strength. It was found that under strong message argument conditions, negative attack ads may lead to more positive evaluations of the sponsoring candidate, whereas under weak message argument conditions, direct comparison ads may be superior. In developing this model to include the effects of negative appeals, the traditional Dual Mediation Model of persuasion is redefined. The author demonstrates that a peripheral cue (attitude towards the ad) can have an impact on the central route to persuasion by fostering message acceptance not only in regard to the sponsor of the advertisement but also in regard to a competitor. The resultant Tri-Mediation Model of persuasion provides significant insights into the nature of cognitive processing resulting from exposure to negative advertising.
Can Comparative Advertising Be Effective in Germany? A Tale of Two Campaigns
Manfred Schwaiger, Carsten Rennhak, Charles R. Taylor and Hugh M. Cannon, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 47, No. 1, Mar 2007, pp. 2-13
After many years of being legally banned, comparative advertising has recently been permitted in Germany.
After many years of being legally banned, comparative advertising has recently been permitted in Germany. So far, advertising practitioners and researchers have neither reached a consensus on its effectiveness nor on its usefulness for corporate communications. While findings from the U.S. literature suggest that comparative advertising can be effective in several contexts in the United States, there has been a lack of research on whether comparative advertising can be effective in Germany. Because of cultural factors, it should not be automatically concluded that comparative advertisements will be effective in Germany. The authors explore the effectiveness of comparative advertising in Germany by analyzing two separate campaigns, one that theoretically lends itself to effective comparative advertising and one that does not. A general theory that makes predictions about the effectiveness of comparative advertising is proposed and tested. While an analysis of two campaigns is not sufficient to establish the generalized efficacy of comparative advertising in Germany, the results clearly support the idea that comparative advertising can be effective in some contexts in Germany. However, as predicted by our theory, there are other conditions under which comparative advertising is not effective.
How to manage the intensity of comparison in comparative advertising over time
Jang-Sun Hwang, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 21, No. 4, 2002, pp. 481-502
Despite the popularity of comparative advertising (CA) over the past three decades, few studies have explored how to develop this strategy outside the USA.
Despite the popularity of comparative advertising (CA) over the past three decades, few studies have explored how to develop this strategy outside the USA. This study reports the results of experiments conducted in South Korea, a country where CA has rarely been used. Two hundred Korean college students were exposed to fictitious advertisements in which the independent variable of comparison intensity (non-comparative/low/medium/ high/increasing) and exposure sequence (first/second/third) were manipulated. The dependent variables of attitude towards the brand and purchase interest assessed advertising effectiveness. Results suggest that the effectiveness of comparative advertising in Korea is improved by increasing the intensity of comparison gradually from indirect (low) to direct (high) over time.
Are you old school? A scale for measuring sports fans' old-school orientation
Damon Aiken, Ajay S. Sukhdial and Lynn R. Kahle, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 42, No. 4, July/August 2002, pp. 71-81
A primary goal of sports marketers in to engender fan identification with a team and/or its athletes.
A primary goal of sports marketers in to engender fan identification with a team and/or its athletes. Previos research has shown that identification appears most likely when fans perceive a personal sense of similarity with a team or its athletes. The present study investigates a unique attitudinal dimension along which fans identify with teams and athletes-the old school-new school dimension. In this study, the authorsdelve into the meaning of the old school versus new school ideology, explore the various elemental components of the concept, and develop a valid and reliable scale to measure old-school orientation among today's sports fans. The Old School Scale developed in this study can be used to match celerity athlete endorsers to target segments and, hence, create advertisements that are more effective.
Attribute upgrading through Across-Class, Within-Category comparison advertising
Stuart Van Auken and Arthur J Adams, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 38, No. 2, March/April 1998
Generic product category groups give opportunities for strategic market development. One of the most common objective of this focus is to achieve a competitive advantage over 'within class' rivals.
Generic product category groups give opportunities for strategic market development. One of the most common objective of this focus is to achieve a competitive advantage over 'within class' rivals. Firms may improve their competitiveness by repositioning a brand into a class with upgraded attributes by use of comparison advertising. Case studies of toy stores are used for research into advertising effectiveness
Verbal Strategies for Indirect Comparative Advertising
William Neese and Ronald D Taylor, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 34, No. 2, March/April 1994
A study of comparative versus non-comparative copy, to test a number of hypotheses about the superiority of the former.
A study of comparative versus non-comparative copy, to test a number of hypotheses about the superiority of the former. Previous studies reviewed. Main finding: the verbal strategies used in advertising campaigns can help to better position the brand in the minds of consumers. Informative comparative advertising is rated especially well. `Brand involvement' also found to be a significant variable.
Twenty years of comparative advertising in the United States
Prof Thomas E Barry, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 12, No. 4, 1993
US advertisers have been using explicit comparative advertising now for two decades. There is less use of the comparative format in countries outside of the US, including EC countries.
US advertisers have been using explicit comparative advertising now for two decades. There is less use of the comparative format in countries outside of the US, including EC countries. As we move into the twenty-first century and as super powers such as the EC implement new directives such as that on comparative advertising, we may see an increased use of such advertising world-wide. There is lack of agreement regarding the definition of comparative advertising and much debate surrounding the effectiveness of this format. This article proposes a comparative advertising taxonomy and reviews the evidence of comparative advertising effectiveness in the U.S. over the last two decades. Recommendations for future research and practice in and of comparative advertising are proposed.
OBSERVATIONS: Comparative Advertising in Magazines: Nature, Frequency, and a Test of the "Underdog" Hypothesis
Tahi J. Gnepa, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 33, No. 5, September/October 1993
A study of comparative advertising in magazines. Hypotheses tested were: a) that the intensity of comparative advertising varies with the life cycle of the product; b) comparative advertising may be counterproductive, especially when used by the leading brand.
A study of comparative advertising in magazines. Hypotheses tested were: a) that the intensity of comparative advertising varies with the life cycle of the product; b) comparative advertising may be counterproductive, especially when used by the leading brand. Ads from four magazines were collected and compared. Both hypotheses were confirmed to some extent.
Comparative Advertising: What Have We Learned in Two Decades?
Prof Thomas E Barry, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 33, No. 2, March/April 1993
A discussion of comparative advertising (where brands are advertised through directly comparing against/attacking other brands).
A discussion of comparative advertising (where brands are advertised through directly comparing against/attacking other brands). Covers: history and frequency of use of comparative advertising; executive surveys into its use; reasons for and against using it; what is known about its effectiveness (using the `hierarchy of effects' model as a framework for evaluating it). Main conclusion: comparative advertising seems to have no advantage in effectiveness, and there are risks of brand confusion. However, most of the studies leading to this conclusion have limitations. The article suggests improvements in research, including more use of real-world audiences, and a classification of types of comparative advertising (one is suggested). Partnership between academics and practitioners is needed.
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