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Do online ad breaks clearly tell kids that advergames are advertisements that intend to sell things?
Soontae An and Hannah Kang, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 32, No. 4, 2013, pp. 655-678
Advergames, blending advertising messages with interactive games, aggressively target young children online.
Advergames, blending advertising messages with interactive games, aggressively target young children online. Due to the immersive and embedded nature of commercial messages in advergames, it is important to provide a cue to trigger children’s persuasion knowledge of the marketplace and advertising. The purpose of this study was to analyse the format, content and characteristics of online ad breaks. The results showed that many websites do not provide any type of ad break. Furthermore, the content and characteristics of ad breaks revealed problems of low visibility, readability and deficiency in terms of stating the commercial intent of advergames.
Development of TV advertising literacy in children: Do physical appearance and eating habits matter?
Julia Spielvogel and Ralf Terlutter, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 32, No. 3, 2013, pp. 343-368
This study investigates the role of physical appearance (body mass index (BMI), body shape perception, self-esteem) and variables related to eating habits (food choice, critical attitude towards food, parents’ attitude towards food) in the development of advertising literacy in children focusing on food advertising.
This study investigates the role of physical appearance (body mass index (BMI), body shape perception, self-esteem) and variables related to eating habits (food choice, critical attitude towards food, parents’ attitude towards food) in the development of advertising literacy in children focusing on food advertising. Based on the concept of self-esteem and the theory of cognitive dissonance, a research model is developed and tested in an empirical study with 249 children aged 7 to 11. Using PLS path modelling, self-esteem and critical attitude towards food are identified as factors influencing advertising literacy directly. Self-esteem is significantly influenced by children’s BMI and body shape perception, while critical attitude is determined by children’s food choices and children’s perception of their parents’ attitude towards food. Evidence was found that the influence of body shape perception on advertising literacy is fully mediated by self-esteem. The results link variables related to physical appearance and eating habits to how children deal with advertising. Implications for academic research and public policy are discussed, and the study raises issues for children’s advertising literacy support and training.
Developmental antecedents to children's responses to online advertising
Wonsun Shin, Jisu Huh and Ronald J. Faber, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 31, No. 4, 2012, pp. 719-740
Many critics have raised concerns about online advertising directed to children. This study investigated the role of several antecedent variables that may impact children’s attitudinal and behavioural responses to online advertising.
Many critics have raised concerns about online advertising directed to children. This study investigated the role of several antecedent variables that may impact children’s attitudinal and behavioural responses to online advertising. Specifically, online ad scepticism, family communication patterns, time spent on the internet, and perceived internet competency were examined as factors that may impact children’s online advertising attitudes and behaviours. A survey conducted with a dyad sample of 381 parents–preteens in South Korea revealed that children with high scepticism towards online advertising, who spent less time using the internet and who perceived lower levels of confidence about their internet skills were more likely to have a negative attitude towards online advertising and less likely to disclose personal information to online marketers. However, the relationship between family communication and children’s responses to online advertising found in this study was inconsistent with the previous empirical findings. Implications of findings are discussed and directions for future research suggested
Behavioural evidence for the effectiveness of threat appeals in the promotion of healthy food to children
Karine M. Charry and Nathalie T.M. Demoulin, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 31, No. 4, 2012, pp. 773-794
The current paper investigates the effectiveness and the persuasion process of threat appeals on children.
The current paper investigates the effectiveness and the persuasion process of threat appeals on children. Disregarded by scholars, probably for ethical reasons, the study of negative appeals targeting 8- to 12-year-olds to promote healthy food seems nevertheless relevant, in the unprecedented context of childhood obesity. To test our assumptions, an experiment was set up with 126 children. Results indicate that the appeal is effective and that the persuasion process of threatening advertisements is led by affective reactions. In contrast to earlier research on older targets, cognitive processes do not improve its effectiveness. Furthermore, exposure to threat appeals increased pre-adolescents’ healthy food consumption in comparison with appeals that may be considered more ‘typical’, such as fun and action. These conclusions and a teleological perspective of ethics invite further study of threat appeals targeting children.
Children's attitudinal reactions to TV advertisements: the African experience
Ayantunji Gbadamosi, Robert E. Hinson, Eddy K. Tukamushaba and Irene Ingunjiri, International Journal of Market Research, Vol. 54, No. 4, 2012, pp. 543-566
This paper is aimed at exploring African children’s attitudinal reactions to television advertisements.
This paper is aimed at exploring African children’s attitudinal reactions to television advertisements. A total of 65 children from four African countries – Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya and Uganda – participated in 12 focus group discussions on the subject matter. Findings suggest that they like television advertising in relation to its entertainment features – especially when the messages feature children characters, cartoons, music, celebrities and humour – and those promoting foods. They also derive excitement from advertising messages that are presented in Pidgin language and/or humorously integrated with local languages. However, they have an aversion to messages that terrify them and those they consider boring. This paper supplements the existing literature on the attitudes of children to advertising, but from Africa as a different contextual platform. It also suggests directions for the effective use of marketing communications strategies in relation to television advertising for marketers and other bodies with special roles in communicating with children such as government agencies and NGOs.
The evolution of self-regulation in food advertising: an analysis of CARU cases from 2000-2010
Mariea Grubbs Hoy, Courtney Carpenter Childers and Margaret Morrison, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 31, No. 2, 2012, pp. 257-290
The FTC envisions the Children’s Advertising Review Unit (CARU) and the Children’s Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative playing lead roles in self-regulatory efforts to address advertising’s contribution to childhood obesity.
The FTC envisions the Children’s Advertising Review Unit (CARU) and the Children’s Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative playing lead roles in self-regulatory efforts to address advertising’s contribution to childhood obesity. Peeler (2009) notes that CARU’s decisions provide comprehensive guidance to advertisers. Limited research has investigated those decisions. Using thematic analysis, this study examines CARU case reports from 2000 to 2010 involving food marketers from a longitudinal perspective. This study found that CARU has been responsive to the emergence of childhood obesity as evidenced in its increased pursuit of nutrition-related complaints, case language and Guidelines revisions. Suggestions for strengthening CARU, the CFBAI and media clearance are offered.
Making the Case for Enhanced Advertising Ethics: How a New Way of Thinking About Advertising Ethics May Build Consumer Trust
Wally Snyder, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 51, No. 3, 2011, pp. 477-483
This article presents the case to advertising professionals for the need to enhance advertising ethics in order to build consumer trust in the company and its brands.
This article presents the case to advertising professionals for the need to enhance advertising ethics in order to build consumer trust in the company and its brands. It cites research showing that consumers do not trust advertising much of the time. Key ethical concerns are discussed, including children's advertising, the blurring of advertising with news and entertainment, and behavioral advertising. In the end, it is the responsibility of the ad professionals to resolve ethical concerns proactively, and they must be encouraged to do so from the top down, and given clear permission to express their concerns.
Stop Playing with Your Food: A Comparison of For-Profit and Non-Profit Food-Related Advergames
Vincent Cicchirillo and Jhih-Syuan Lin, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 51, No. 3, 2011, pp. 484-498
In response to the rising rate in childhood obesity and the increasing number of child-targeted interactive games employed by food marketers and health advocates, this study examined food-related advergaming content for for-profit and non-profit organizations' Web sites.
In response to the rising rate in childhood obesity and the increasing number of child-targeted interactive games employed by food marketers and health advocates, this study examined food-related advergaming content for for-profit and non-profit organizations' Web sites. The authors conducted a content analysis of 80 interactive games (40 for-profit and 40 non-profit). The results showed differences in the interactive-gaming genre types employed by non-profit and for-profit organizations. This research adds considerably to the literature about the ways in which children learn healthy food habits/behaviors. Managerial and practical implications are provided to address the need to advance socially responsible methods for organizations.
Using Adolescent eHealth Literacy to Weigh Trust in Commercial Web Sites: The More Children Know, the Tougher They Are to Persuade
Thomas Hove, Hye-Jin Paek and Thomas Isaacson, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 51, No. 3, 2011, pp. 524-537
As consumers improve their eHealth literacy skills, their trust in commercial Web sites - even ones that provide reliable information - might decrease.
As consumers improve their eHealth literacy skills, their trust in commercial Web sites - even ones that provide reliable information - might decrease. Informed by the persuasion knowledge model, this study examined how much adolescents trusted and relied on commercial and brand Web sites as a source of health information. Both before and after an eHealth literacy intervention among 182 middle-schoolers, students perceived commercial and brand Web sites to be the least reliable and trustworthy sources of health information. Practical and managerial implications are discussed regarding advertisers' efforts in the age of new media to uphold social responsibility and regain consumer trust.
Children and the Commercial World: A Parent's Perspective
Karen Fraser and Cathryn Moses, Credos, June 2011
This report brings together the quantitative and qualitative research Credos commissioned for contribution to the Bailey Review.
This report brings together the quantitative and qualitative research Credos commissioned for contribution to the Bailey Review. The research shows that parents find it difficult to keep up with their child's interaction with the digital and online world. It concludes that more needs to be done to help empower parents as regulators of their children's media consumption.
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