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Journal of Advertising Research
Int. Journal of Advertising
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Advertising creativity and repetition: recall, wearout and wearin effects
Kevin Lehnert, Brian D. Till and Brad D. Carlson, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 32, No. 2, 2013, pp. 211-231
Creativity is seen as an important component of advertising, with highly creative ads being easier to recall than control ads.
Creativity is seen as an important component of advertising, with highly creative ads being easier to recall than control ads. However, the boundary conditions around this effect are less understood. This research examines how creativity influences recall across repeated ad exposures. Additionally, this paper investigates the influence of creativity on advertising wearin/wearout. We utilise creative and control commercials embedded in a television programme for a naturalistic viewing experience, along with a one-week follow-up measure. We find that creative advertisements exhibit higher recall, though repeated exposures reduce this advantage. Further, creative ads are more liked, demonstrate wearin effects more quickly and are less susceptible to wearout.
Assessing Celebrity Endorsement Effects in China: A Consumer-Celebrity Relational Approach
Kineta Hung, Kimmy W. Chan and Caleb H. Tse, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 51, No. 4, 2011, pp. 608-623
Celebrity endorsement is a salient executional strategy in China, where national celebrities often endorse more than 20 brands.
Celebrity endorsement is a salient executional strategy in China, where national celebrities often endorse more than 20 brands. This paper adopts a relational perspective to examine this research issue. The relational perspective is driven by three core Chinese cultural values: collectivism, risk aversion, and power distance. The authors propose a model that postulates how celebrity-worship leads to value transfer that, in turn, affects brand purchase intent. Findings from a survey involving 1,030 respondents from a national panel of consumers, showed that consumer celebrity worship is a significant antecedent to endorser effects; over-endorsement by a celebrity is an important moderator; and the model is robust across both sports and entertainment celebrities.
Generalizations about Advertising Effectiveness in Markets
Gerard J. Tellis, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 49, No. 2, June 2009, pp. 240-245
Based on over 260 estimates, the mean elasticity of sales or market share to advertising is 0.1 percent.
Based on over 260 estimates, the mean elasticity of sales or market share to advertising is 0.1 percent. Another 450 field experiments suggest that changes in media, product, target segments, advertising scheduling, and advertising content are more likely to yield changes in sales than do changes in advertising weight. Numerous other studies suggest that advertising wear-in does not exist or occurs quite rapidly while advertising wear-out occurs more slowly. Details of and differences in these results by condition are discussed in this article. From an issue of JAR devoted to `empirical generalisations’: the papers were first presented at a conference at the Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania in December 2008.
Media Scheduling and carry-over effects: Is adstock a useful TV planning tool?
Erwin Ephron and Colin McDonald, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 42, No. 4, July/August 2002, pp. 66-70
The current U.S. recency-based scheduling model focuses entirely on the short-term effects of advertising, arguing that in competitive markets the data show that response to advertising dissipates rapidly.
The current U.S. recency-based scheduling model focuses entirely on the short-term effects of advertising, arguing that in competitive markets the data show that response to advertising dissipates rapidly. This approach leads to consistent moderate weight and near continuous scheduling. Others disagree. Adstock, a well-established concept in the United Kingdom, has been seeping into U.S. planning through globalization and marketing-mix modeling. It has introduced carry-over effects into U.S. TV schedling, which encourage GRP concentration, flighting, and less continuous advertising. We believe that the way Adstock is currently being used by U.S. agencies to modify GRP lay-down is seriously flawed, because it is based on a misunderstanding of what Adstock is. This paper wil explain what we consider to be the fallacy and pinpoint just what place, if any, Adstock can have in media scheduling.
An Empirical Investigation of Advertising Wearin and Wearout
Margaret Henerson Blair, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 40, No. 6, November/December 2000
This paper is one of 18 selected by the Editorial Review Board of The Journal of Advertising Research to be a 'classic' - an article that has withstood the test of time.
This paper is one of 18 selected by the Editorial Review Board of The Journal of Advertising Research to be a 'classic' - an article that has withstood the test of time. First published in 1987, Blair uses nearly 100 ARS case studies to investigate and discuss the implications of an advertisement's effectiveness building response in its early exposures and declining later on. She concludes that the selling power of an ad can be measured in the ARS lab at a single point in time with one exposure, that there is no real evidence of wear in (to her definition), but wear out does occur.
Advertising Wearout: What and How You Measure Matters
David W. Stewart, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 39, No. 5, September/October 1999
Two recent papers on advertising wearout appear to arrive at seemingly very different conclusions about advertising wearout.
Two recent papers on advertising wearout appear to arrive at seemingly very different conclusions about advertising wearout. Blair and Rabuck (1998) offer a simple view of wearout based on empirical data obtained over a period of years. They conclude that wearout follows a predictable path that is determined by the initial persuasiveness of the advertising and the gross rating points (GRIPs). On the other hand, Scott and Solomon (1998) conclude that there is no easily identifiable pattern of wearout.. It is the objective of this paper to identify the differences in the two papers and, by doing so, to reconcile the two conclusions. The paper also offers some practical guidance regarding the measurement and analysis of advertising wearout based on the issues identified in the two papers.
Advertising Wearout: What is Wearout Anyway?
Douglas R Scott and Debbie Solomon, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 38, No. 5, September/October 1998
Studies on television wearout conducted over the past 30 years show inconclusive results, underscoring the complexity of the process and the number of factors that need to be examined to understand it.
Studies on television wearout conducted over the past 30 years show inconclusive results, underscoring the complexity of the process and the number of factors that need to be examined to understand it. Recent evidence from Millward Brown demonstrates that focusing on only a few factors can underestimate the longer-term impact of advertising. When wearout occurs depends on what you say, how you say it, who you say it to, and on the media plan. The article also comments on wearout in print.
Advertising Wearout: Advertising Wearin and Wearout: Ten Years Later - More Empirical Evidence and Successful Practice
Margaret Henderson Blair and Michael J. Rabuck, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 38, No. 5, September/October 1998
In 1987 the Journal of Advertising Research published an article by the author entitled 'An Empirical Investigation of Advertising Wearin and Wearout'.
In 1987 the Journal of Advertising Research published an article by the author entitled 'An Empirical Investigation of Advertising Wearin and Wearout'. This paper presented the results of four studies (including nearly 100 observations) and made the case for three findings. Over the past decade, rsc and its customers have continued to explore these concepts. There are now over 500 observations from 10 separate studies and innumerable instances where practitioners have been applying the learning successfully. In addition, the conclusions have since been supported by Information Resources, Inc.'s 'How Advertising Works' study (Abraham and Lodish, 1990; Lodish et al., 1995) and John Philip Jones' STAS analyses (Jones, 1995b). The authors use this new quantitative evidence to revisit and extend the original wearin/wearout conclusions and then showcase published case studies to illustrate how the learning has been put into practice.
Should the Language of "Testing" be Abolished?
Karl E Rosenberg, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 38, No. 3, May/June 1998, pp. 73-76
Discusses the true reasons why research should be employed, and the key compenents of successful research.
Discusses the true reasons why research should be employed, and the key compenents of successful research. Concludes that research should not be undertaken when it is done for some reason other than toimprove the return on the advertising investment; the advertising being tested is not expected to have any measurable effect on sales; and when the test does not provide a criterion measure rigorously managed and continuously validated to sales.
Turning Research into Return-on-Investment
Mike Mondello, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 36, No. 4, July/August 1996
Describes how Celestial Seasonings Inc. uses market research to improve return on investment: 1) using existing studies on profitability to determine how the marketing budget should be allocated; 2) a 'total quality' approach to test and monitor TV advertising.
Describes how Celestial Seasonings Inc. uses market research to improve return on investment: 1) using existing studies on profitability to determine how the marketing budget should be allocated; 2) a 'total quality' approach to test and monitor TV advertising. The ARS persuasion-shift system is used and recommended.
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Wearout and decay
Accountability and ROI
Copytesting and pretesting
Emotional and sensory appeals
Evaluation and tracking
Long-term effects of communications
Neuromarketing, brain science
Persuasion, preference shift
Psychological effects of communications
Recall and recognition
Sales and market share
Short-term effects of communications
Theories and ideas of communications
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