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How using versus showing interaction between characters and products boosts product placement effectiveness
Bernadette Kamleitner and Abul Khair Jyote, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 32, No. 4, 2013, pp. 633-653
Placements in movies increase brand awareness. Whether they are effective beyond memory, (e.g.
Placements in movies increase brand awareness. Whether they are effective beyond memory, (e.g. in terms of brand attitudes) is a contested issue. This paper argues and shows that a specific type of placement, character–product interaction (CPI), is able to achieve effectiveness across measures of placement success. A comparison of three experimental versions of the same movie demonstrates the consistent advantage of CPI placements over static prominent placements. Additional exploratory analyses suggest that placement effectiveness may also depend on characteristics of the placed product.
Sharing the Spotlight: Is There Room for Two Brands in One Advertisement?
Jenni Romaniuk, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 53, No. 3, 2013, pp. 247-250
Jenni Romaniuk discusses the circumstances in which it is beneficial to feature more than one brand in an advertisement.
Jenni Romaniuk discusses the circumstances in which it is beneficial to feature more than one brand in an advertisement. This can be done by featuring with a parent brand, a partner brand or a competitor brand. When featuring more than one brand marketers should ensure the most important brand is made dominant and that marketing messages are not confused.
PP for 'product placement' or 'puzzled public'? The effectiveness of symbols as warnings of product placement and the moderating role of brand recall
Tina Tessitore and Maggie Geuens, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 32, No. 3, 2013, pp. 419-442
This research examines the effectiveness of the European ‘PP’ symbol, recently introduced as a warning of product placement in locally produced television programmes.
This research examines the effectiveness of the European ‘PP’ symbol, recently introduced as a warning of product placement in locally produced television programmes. The authors test whether this symbol counters the pervasive effect of product placement on purchase intention. Study 1 shows that the symbol does not prompt resistance to the influence of product placement. This is because the majority of consumers neither notice nor comprehend the symbol. In Study 2, two training methods are tested to increase the symbol’s effectiveness: (1) verbal label training and (2) a combination of verbal label training and information training. The addition of information training is necessary to increase the symbol’s noticeability, whereas verbal label training helps increase the symbol’s comprehensibility and effectiveness in activating persuasion knowledge and decreasing purchase intention. Finally, the results provide evidence that brand recall is crucial for resistance to product placement, suggesting the importance of brand recall as a moderator of resistance processes.
Digging Deeper Down into the Empirical Generalization of Brand Recall: Adding Owned and Earned Media to Paid-Media Touchpoints
Frank Harrison, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 53, No. 2, 2013, pp. 181-185
ZenithOptimedia’s Touchpoints ROI Tracker research, based on interviews with over 700,000 consumers in 47 countries, shows that across paid, owned, and earned consumer contact points, users of brands have a higher propensity to recall the brands that they use than non-users buying in the same category.
ZenithOptimedia’s Touchpoints ROI Tracker research, based on interviews with over 700,000 consumers in 47 countries, shows that across paid, owned, and earned consumer contact points, users of brands have a higher propensity to recall the brands that they use than non-users buying in the same category. On average, brand recall amongst users is 1.7 times greater (the user multiplier) than amongst non-users. There is significant variation in the user multiplier by product category, brand size, market maturity, and touchpoint type. Marketers of brands with higher user multipliers, particularly those marketing smaller brands, have a harder job to reach non-buyers than those with low multipliers.
More Mutter About Clutter: Extending Empirical Generalizations to Facebook
Karen Nelson-Field, Erica Riebe, and Byron Sharp, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 53, No. 2, 2013, pp. 186-191
This article examines the impact of clutter on advertising placed on Facebook. This platform is quite different from broadcast media, yet the current study unveiled very similar findings as previously seen for television and radio—that advertisements were better recalled when placed among fewer other advertisements.
This article examines the impact of clutter on advertising placed on Facebook. This platform is quite different from broadcast media, yet the current study unveiled very similar findings as previously seen for television and radio—that advertisements were better recalled when placed among fewer other advertisements. The improvements in advertising recall, however, do not appear to be sufficient to justify the likely price premium that advertisers would have to pay to reduce clutter on Facebook. The research found that larger brands are more immune to clutter than small brands, so low-clutter environments are more important for lesser-known (i.e., smaller and new) brands.
In the Eye of the Beholder; The Equality of Ad Effectiveness Across Platforms
Amy Innerfield and Justin Fromm, ARF Experiential Learning, Audience Measurement 8.0, 2013
This paper describes a study that is part of a wider research agenda of The Walt Disney Company, the US entertainment group, about how the video platforms upon which Disney video content is available - TV, computer, tablet, mobile - affect viewing of both the content and advertising.
This paper describes a study that is part of a wider research agenda of The Walt Disney Company, the US entertainment group, about how the video platforms upon which Disney video content is available - TV, computer, tablet, mobile - affect viewing of both the content and advertising. The study measures brand impact metrics including free recall, cued recall, brand recognition, purchase intention and attitude towards the brand, and the advertisements. The authors point out that future research should focus on the congruence between viewing platforms and the advertised brand as well as creative execution, which they see as key factors driving cross-platform advertising effectiveness.
Advertising creativity and repetition: recall, wearout and wearin effects
Kevin Lehnert, Brian D. Till and Brad D. Carlson, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 32, No. 2, 2013, pp. 211-231
Creativity is seen as an important component of advertising, with highly creative ads being easier to recall than control ads.
Creativity is seen as an important component of advertising, with highly creative ads being easier to recall than control ads. However, the boundary conditions around this effect are less understood. This research examines how creativity influences recall across repeated ad exposures. Additionally, this paper investigates the influence of creativity on advertising wearin/wearout. We utilise creative and control commercials embedded in a television programme for a naturalistic viewing experience, along with a one-week follow-up measure. We find that creative advertisements exhibit higher recall, though repeated exposures reduce this advantage. Further, creative ads are more liked, demonstrate wearin effects more quickly and are less susceptible to wearout.
Nature imagery in advertising: attention restoration and memory effects
Patrick Hartmann, Vanessa Apaolaza and Patxi Alija, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 32, No. 2, 2013, pp. 183-210
Environmental psychology postulates that interacting with nature has inherently positive emotional, cognitive and physiological effects.
Environmental psychology postulates that interacting with nature has inherently positive emotional, cognitive and physiological effects. Based on Attention Restoration Theory and related research, this paper presents a theoretical framework hypothesising that nature imagery presented in an advertisement enhances cognitive advertising message elaboration and memory. Three experimental studies, including an eye-tracking experiment, which successively addressed emotional, information processing and memory effects of exposure to nature imagery in advertising, provided evidence supporting postulated effects. Findings confirmed the hypothesis that advertisements featuring visual representations of pleasant nature scenes can evoke very similar emotional responses to those experienced in pleasant natural environments, which constitutes a necessary condition for the suggested cognitive effects. As hypothesised, advertising messages of advertisements featuring pleasant nature imagery achieved higher memory scores in both unaided recall and recognition compared to identical advertisements displaying a variety of other attractive pictures.
Do new forms of television advertising occasion better recall than traditional advertising spots?
María Arrazola, José de Hevia, Pedro Reinares and Ricardo Reinares Lara, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 32, No. 2, 2013, pp. 281-300
The loss of effectiveness of television advertising centred on advertising spots has caused the development, and subsequent consolidation, of new forms of advertising within this medium.
The loss of effectiveness of television advertising centred on advertising spots has caused the development, and subsequent consolidation, of new forms of advertising within this medium. While management assumes that these new forms of advertising generate greater recall, in order to justify their usage, there is a noticeable lack of research evidence to prove this supposition. Therefore, in this article we use a representative sample of Spanish television audiences to compare the advertising recall that advertising spots generate, as opposed to that occasioned by a combination of new television advertising formats. The empirical analysis was carried out by means of an Ordered Probit model, which showed that the new forms of advertising gave rise to better recall than advertising spots, as much with regard to aided as with unaided recall.
Are You In Good Hands? Slogan Recall: What Really Matters
Chiranjeev Kohli, Sunil Thomas and Rajneesh Suri, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 53, No. 1, 2013, pp. 31-42
Slogans are very important in brand building, and recall is considered one of the most effective measures of slogan success.
Slogans are very important in brand building, and recall is considered one of the most effective measures of slogan success. For this study, 220 respondents were asked to recall slogans. Factors impacting recall of the 150 short-listed slogans were investigated. The study relied on objective (rather than perceptual) data, and factored in the natural variance associated with the variables of interest in the marketplace without imposing the artificial constraints of lab settings. The results suggest that to improve recall, slogans should be retained for long periods of time and supported by extensive marketing budgets. When designing the slogans, care should also be taken to keep them short. However, contrary to expectations, none of the other design elements—complexity of slogans, use of jingles, and use of rhymes—had an impact on slogan recall.
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Recall and recognition
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Long-term effects of communications
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Persuasion, preference shift
Psychological effects of communications
Sales and market share
Short-term effects of communications
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Wearout and decay
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