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What Works Best When Combining Television Sets, PCs, Tablets, or Mobile Phones? How Synergies Across Devices Result From Cross-Device Effects and Cross-Format Synergies
Duane Varan, Jamie Murphy, Charles F. Hofacker, Jennifer A. Robinson, Robert F. Potter, and Steven Bellman, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 53, No. 2, 2013, pp. 212-220
Advertising research often confounds device effects (e.g., television sets, radios, and personal computers) with communication format effects (e.g., respectively, video, audio, and Web sites).
Advertising research often confounds device effects (e.g., television sets, radios, and personal computers) with communication format effects (e.g., respectively, video, audio, and Web sites). Across four experiments, this study documents empirical patterns of cross-device effects among television sets, PCs, iPods, and mobile phones. In three experiments, the format was identical across devices, and the device made no difference to advertising effectiveness. The fourth experiment—with different formats and devices—showed sequential synergy effects. Synergy can strengthen or weaken advertising campaigns that combine multiple communication devices. The combined results of four experiments suggest possible cross-format synergies but not cross-device synergies.
How Much Is Too Much? The Collective Impact of Repetition and Position in Multi-Segment Sports Broadcast
Yongick Jeong, Hai Tran and Xinshu Zhao, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 52, No. 1, 2012, pp. 87-101
This study explored the collective impact of repetition and position on advertising effectiveness as evidenced through recognition and likeability of advertisements that were broadcast at different times in the Super Bowl.
This study explored the collective impact of repetition and position on advertising effectiveness as evidenced through recognition and likeability of advertisements that were broadcast at different times in the Super Bowl. The findings indicate that brands advertised more in the first half and brands that appeared in both halves but shown more in one half than the other were better recognized than those equally promoted in both halves. Meanwhile, advertisements presented in both halves but repeated more in the second half were less favored than those evenly shown in both halves. The results support theories of repetition and primacy effects.
How a presenter's perceived attractiveness affects persuasion for attractiveness-unrelated products
Sandra Praxmarer, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 30, No. 5, 2011, pp. 839-865
Contrary to the beauty match-up hypothesis, several studies report positive effects of a presenter's attractiveness for attractiveness-unrelated products.
Contrary to the beauty match-up hypothesis, several studies report positive effects of a presenter's attractiveness for attractiveness-unrelated products. This research demonstrates how, via which paths, the presenter's attractiveness affects persuasion for attractiveness-unrelated products. For a non-celebrity presenter the positive effect of attractiveness on persuasion is mediated by perceived presenter expertise, presenter trustworthiness, and liking of the advertisement. Previous studies could neither support the relevance of these paths unambiguously nor did they test whether or not perceived expertise, trustworthiness, and liking of the ad fully mediate the attractiveness effect. This study also considers receiver and presenter sex and receivers' product involvement. The results indicate that attractiveness affects persuasion positively regardless of whether the presenter and receiver are of the same or the opposite sex and regardless of whether receivers are characterised by low or high product involvement.
Source characteristics and advertising effectiveness: the roles of message processing motivation and product category knowledge
Cengiz Yilmaz, E. Eser Telci, Muzaffer Bodur and Tutku Eker Iscioglu, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 30, No. 5, 2011, pp. 889-914
The study examines the impact of source likeability and source credibility on the effectiveness of print advertisements.
The study examines the impact of source likeability and source credibility on the effectiveness of print advertisements. A theoretical model that depicts the impacts of source characteristics on (1) ad attitude, (2) brand attitude, and (3) willingness to purchase is investigated using data collected through a quasi-experimental design. In addition to direct impacts, the moderating role of message processing motivation (involvement) and product category knowledge in the relationships of interest are investigated via multi-group analyses. Findings indicate that the sequence of relationships between source characteristics, attitudinal responses and willingness to purchase may vary substantially across the four conditions characterised by high/low levels of processing motivation and product category knowledge.
Attributes of Likeable Television Commercials in Asia
Kim-Shyan Fam, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 48, No. 3, Sept 2008, pp. 418-432
Many advertisers aim to present advertisements that will at least be liked by those who see them, as it has been suggested that advertising likeability can lead to advertising recall, favorable brand attitudes, and possibly purchase intention.
Many advertisers aim to present advertisements that will at least be liked by those who see them, as it has been suggested that advertising likeability can lead to advertising recall, favorable brand attitudes, and possibly purchase intention. This study investigates consumer attitudes in Asia toward television commercials by determining attributes that are liked and disliked in advertisements. Data were obtained from telephone interviews conducted in Hong Kong, Shanghai, Jakarta,Bangkok, and Mumbai, each country with distinct cultural and religious beliefs. The results show that “Entertaining” is the most liked attribute across the five cities. However, the importance of other likeable attributes varied, and the study concludes by providing several explanations to the variations in an Asian context.
Effects of Advertising Likeability: A 10-Year Perspective
Edith G Smit, Peter C Neijens and Lex van Meurs, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 46, No. 1, Mar 2006, pp. 73-83
In the early 1990s various studies showed the importance of advertising likeability for advertising effectiveness.
In the early 1990s various studies showed the importance of advertising likeability for advertising effectiveness. Has the role of advertising likeability changed since then? We analyzed audience reactions to 3,000 commercials broadcast on Dutch TV in the period 1992–2001—a period in which the amount of media and advertising boomed. Over time, commercials were perceived as less likeable and less effective. The predictive value of different advertising likeability dimensions, however, remained stable over time. We also found that the influence of advertising likeability differed for different types of products.
Reconsidering Recall and Emotion in Advertising
Abhilasha Mehta and Scott C Purvis, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 46, No. 1, Mar 2006, pp. 49-56
Recall, one of the key metrics in advertising testing, has been criticized over the years as favoring rational advertising over emotional advertising.
Recall, one of the key metrics in advertising testing, has been criticized over the years as favoring rational advertising over emotional advertising. An analysis and reconsideration of the available evidence show that emotional advertising is not penalized by recall, and that emotional content in well-executed commercials can actually boost recall. Strong empirical evidence shows that recall, when used in combination with other measures, is a valid measure of advertising effectiveness and, as the analysis here illustrates, does not miss the emotion in advertising that builds brands.
Out with the new, in with the old
Wendy Gordon, International Journal of Market Research, Vol. 48, No. 1, 2006, pp. 7-26
This paper is born out of frustration at outdated models of thinking that are alive and well today instead of being dead and buried (and a source of amusement).
This paper is born out of frustration at outdated models of thinking that are alive and well today instead of being dead and buried (and a source of amusement). The marketing community obstinately clings to false beliefs about how people and brands coexist in everyday life, in the face of irrefutable scientific proof to the contrary. Like those who insisted that the world was flat when it had been proven to be round, or those who, even today, refuse to believe in the evidence of evolution, many people who are responsible for the growth and success of organisations, brands, products and services are unwilling, or unable, to change their views about how ‘we’ (the institution, organisation, company or brand) influence ‘you’ (the consumer, customer or target group) to think or act. Between 15 and 25 years ago (1980–1990), radical new thinking emerged about how advertising ‘works’ that is still applicable today. At the time this thinking was provocative and challenging, yet it failed to take root. Why? The first objective of this paper is to revisit the key hypotheses presented in three very different papers written during this decade and to analyse why these theories failed to flourish. The second objective is to demonstrate through current hard science that the thinking in each case was sound and can now be scientifically proven and, furthermore, that this knowledge is neither heretical nor to be feared. Instead it can lead to innovative and successful marketing solutions that align the interests of organisations (company, brand, product, service) with those of human beings (consumers, customers).
Chinese children’s attitudes towards television advertising: truthfulness and liking
James U. McNeal and Kara Chan, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 23, No. 3, 2004, pp. 337-359
This benchmarking study examines Chinese children’s perceived truthfulness of and liking for television advertising in three Chinese cities with different developmental levels of advertising.
This benchmarking study examines Chinese children’s perceived truthfulness of and liking for television advertising in three Chinese cities with different developmental levels of advertising. An in-person survey of 1758 children (ages 6 to 14) was conducted between December 2001 and March 2002 using a structured questionnaire. Results indicate that a majority of children perceive half of the television commercials to be true, although this varies by grade and geography. Children in Beijing perceived television commercials to be more trustworthy than did children in Nanjing and Chengdu. The percentage of children who perceive all commercials to be true declines consistently with grade in all three cities. There is a high proportion of first graders who perceive all commercials to be untrue. The basis for judgement varies predominantly by grade. Children in higher grades depend more on brand and user experience while children in lower grades rely mainly on authority (i.e. parents or teachers). A high proportion of first graders hold both a strong like and dislike for commercials. These strong feelings towards advertising decreased with grade, being replaced by a marked increase in neutral or indifferent feelings. Gender and level of television viewing do not show a consistent impact on perceived truthfulness and liking for commercials. Perceived truthfulness of television advertising is related positively with liking for commercials.
You’ll have to see this! Measuring ad effectiveness by quantitative comparison of qualitative dimensions
Marije Andela and Bas de Vos, ESOMAR, Television Audience Conference, Geneva, June 2004
In 2002, in collaboration with MarketResponse Netherlands, Ster devised a new method for the measurement of the processing of television ads by audiences.
In 2002, in collaboration with MarketResponse Netherlands, Ster devised a new method for the measurement of the processing of television ads by audiences. This paper will describe how this method was developed and how it is used for measuring ad effectiveness for individual brands and product industries. Based on a database of cases, which currently comprises over 4,000 observations, the authors describe general learnings about what works in television advertising and what does not. Predictive variables of ad recall, ad likeability and brand recognition are demonstrated. The general conclusion is that effective advertising includes both attention and bonding. This paper gives insight into how this can be accomplished.
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