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Fun, fast and easy: Research's war on rationality
Tom Ewing, ESOMAR, Asia Pacific, Ho Chi Minh City, April 2013
This paper discusses the ideas of psychologist Daniel Kahneman, and his work on how people make judgements and decisions.
This paper discusses the ideas of psychologist Daniel Kahneman, and his work on how people make judgements and decisions. The author looks at the implications for market research, with particular reference to Asian markets. The paper explores what System 1 thinking (fast and largely intuitive) and System 2 thinking (slower and more effortful) mean for research. The study concludes that there is a need for research tools which more explicitly take into account the ways System 1 leads decision making. It also explores the business case for this, with examples of how using research to understand System 1 decisions has led to more accurate research as well as business advantage.
IJMR Young Research Writer award 2012 Winning Entry: 'Mirror, mirror on the wall, which brand is like me most of all?': Integrating consumers into brand personality measurement
Elina Halonen, International Journal of Market Research, Vol. 55, No. 1, 2013, pp. 17-24
The purpose of this research was to understand whether consumers evaluate brands with personality traits congruent with their own more positively than brands with incongruent personality traits.
The purpose of this research was to understand whether consumers evaluate brands with personality traits congruent with their own more positively than brands with incongruent personality traits. After all, brand personality is one of the most frequently used metrics in quantitative market research, based on the implicit assumption that consumers desire and purchase brands that they perceive similar to themselves, but self–brand congruency remains virtually unexplored in market research as a measurement tool. The study was conducted as an online survey in May 2012, collected from 11 countries across North America, Europe, Asia and Africa. Results showed that the degree of self–brand congruency was found to be a good predictor of levels of brand appeal across all countries studied, which suggests that brands with distinct personality traits congruent with consumers' self-concepts are evaluated more positively than brands with incongruent personality traits across cultures, particularly in more westernised and developed countries such as UK, Germany, Spain and US. This suggests that the predictive ability of commercial brand personality measurement could be considerably improved by incorporating consumers' self-evaluations into the research.
Comments on J. Scott Armstrong's 'Evidence-based advertising: an application to persuasion'
Les Carlson, John R. Rossiter, David W. Stewart and J. Scott Armstrong, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 30, No. 5, 2011, pp. 769-794
The following section features three sets of commentaries by Les Carlson, John R. Rossiter and David W.
The following section features three sets of commentaries by Les Carlson, John R. Rossiter and David W. Stewart, discussing some of the controversial points in J. Scott Armstrong's preceding paper 'Evidence-based advertising: an application to persuasion', followed by a reply to the Comments by Armstrong.
Evidence-based advertising: an application to persuasion
J. Scott Armstrong, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 30, No. 5, 2011, pp. 743-767
Complex phenomena such as advertising are difficult to understand. As a result, extensive and repeated testing of diverse alternative reasonable hypotheses is necessary in order to increase knowledge about advertising.
Complex phenomena such as advertising are difficult to understand. As a result, extensive and repeated testing of diverse alternative reasonable hypotheses is necessary in order to increase knowledge about advertising. This calls for experimental studies: laboratory, field, and quasi-experimental studies. Fortunately, much useful empirical research of this kind has already been conducted on how to create persuasive advertisements. A literature review, conducted over 16 years, summarised knowledge from 687 sources that drew upon more than 3,000 studies (Armstrong 2010). The review led to the development of 195 principles (condition-action statements) for advertising. We were unable to find any of these principles in a convenience sample of nine advertising textbooks and three practitioner handbooks. The advice in these books ignored conditions for the most part. The books also tended to ignore empirical evidence, which is how we learn about conditions; of the more than 7,200 sources referenced in these books, only 30 overlapped with the 687 used to develop the principles. By using the evidence-based principles, practitioners may be able to increase the persuasiveness of advertisements. Relevant evidence-based papers have been published at the rate of 20 per year from 2000 to 2010. The rate of knowledge development could be increased if journal editors invited papers with evidence-based research findings and if open peer review were provided on a continuing basis.
Does consumer scepticism negate the effects of visceral cues in weight loss advertising?
Clinton Amos and Stacy Landreth Grau, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 30, No. 4, 2011, pp. 693-719
The theory of visceral influences posits that certain drive states are commonly associated with impulsive behaviour, and that cues that maximise a reward’s temporal and hedonic appeal can even persuade wary consumers.
The theory of visceral influences posits that certain drive states are commonly associated with impulsive behaviour, and that cues that maximise a reward’s temporal and hedonic appeal can even persuade wary consumers. In this research we examine the effects of visceral cues in a weight loss advertising context on both sceptical and non-sceptical individuals, given that past examinations by the FTC had revealed the potentially visceral nature of weight loss advertising. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of visceral cues in a weight loss advertising context, and to examine whether or not ad scepticism can diminish the effects of visceral cues. Results from two experimental studies indicate that visceral cues that emphasise vividness of reward and provide a visual prime have attention-narrowing and impulse-inducing effects that persist regardless of ad scepticism. Implications and future directions of the findings are subsequently discussed.
Engineered Persuasion: Just Do It
Pat LaPointe, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 51, No. 2, 2011, pp. 339-341
How does a brand-marketing company succeed in a hyper-competitive, global marketplace where product designs, features, and engineering increasingly (and rapidly) are matched and copied by competitors? Many firms seek to create an advantage through technical innovation.
How does a brand-marketing company succeed in a hyper-competitive, global marketplace where product designs, features, and engineering increasingly (and rapidly) are matched and copied by competitors? Many firms seek to create an advantage through technical innovation. Brand marketers are advised to focus on the lessons engineering can teach, such as defining the problem to be solved and collecting the known solutions to the problem.
Rx for Brand Consistency. Should Pharmaceutical Marketers Send Different Messages to Physician and Consumer Audiences?
Kim Saxton, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 51, No. 2, 2011, pp. 380-393
Pharmaceutical marketers in the United States wrestle with an interesting dilemma: should they maintain similar advertising across their two target audiences—physicians and patients—or should they customize advertising for each? This study explores the relationship between advertising similarity and advertising effectiveness.
Pharmaceutical marketers in the United States wrestle with an interesting dilemma: should they maintain similar advertising across their two target audiences—physicians and patients—or should they customize advertising for each? This study explores the relationship between advertising similarity and advertising effectiveness. It finds that similarity of advertising message strategy is unrelated to advertising effectiveness while advertising execution-similarity is negatively related. This pattern of effects holds even when patients are the drivers of brand choice. These findings reinforce the idea that advertising should be finely honed to target customers’ needs even when two different customers interact in brand choice.
Consumer consideration of sponsor brands they do not remember: taking a wider look at the memorisation effects of sponsorship
Jean-Luc Herrmann, Björn Walliser and Mathieu Kacha, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 30, No. 2, 2011, pp. 259-281
Extending findings from advertising to sponsorship, this study evaluates explicit and implicit sponsorship memorisation effects.
Extending findings from advertising to sponsorship, this study evaluates explicit and implicit sponsorship memorisation effects. A survey of 584 spectators of a tennis tournament reveals that both types of memorisation effects (co)exist. Even when spectators do not recognise a brand as an event sponsor, they include it more often in their consideration set than do spectators who have not been exposed to the sponsor brand. Sponsorship also reduces the number of main competitor brands in the spectators’ consideration sets. However, these effects emerge only at the level of perceptual implicit memory, not in conceptual implicit memory. The results are encouraging for sponsor companies and call for a change in evaluations of sponsorship memorisation effects.
The Secret of Television's Success: Emotional Content or Rational Information? After Fifty Years the Debate Continues
Robert G Heath; Insights from Horst Stipp, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 51, No. 1, 2011, 50th Anniversary Supplement, pp. 112-123
The Journal of Advertising Research has been instrumental in supporting new ideas about how advertising works, no matter how unpopular their implications.
The Journal of Advertising Research has been instrumental in supporting new ideas about how advertising works, no matter how unpopular their implications. In 1971, Herb Krugman presented evidence that television watching was low involvement compared to print. Three years later, Andrew Ehrenberg postulated that repetition - not persuasion - was how advertising influenced most people. Received wisdom, however, still holds that television advertising works persuasively and works best at high attention levels. This article critically examines this assumption, concluding that the continued success of television advertising in building strong brands most likely will depend not on its ability to persuade but on how well it is able to influence emotions at low levels of attention.
Ehrenberg's View of Advertising
Byron Sharp, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 50, No. 4, 2010
A discussion of Andrew Ehrenberg, recently deceased at time of writing. Mentions an article by Ehrenberg in the first issue of JAR in 1961, and others of the 20 papers written by him for the journal over the years.
A discussion of Andrew Ehrenberg, recently deceased at time of writing. Mentions an article by Ehrenberg in the first issue of JAR in 1961, and others of the 20 papers written by him for the journal over the years. These include "Repetitive Advertising and the Consumer", from 1974, which showed that advertising works "not by persuasion or manipulation (through either emotional or rational mechanisms) but largely by reinforcing existing propensities". Meanwhile, "Advertising: Strongly Persuasive or Nudging?", from 1997, provided empirical evidence of what Ehrenberg termed consumers' "polygamous loyalty". Summing up, Sharp defines the "Ehrenbergian view" as placing "much greater importance on creativity, on branding, on understanding memory structures".
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