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Emblems and shortcuts: Rethinking corporate reputation research
Graeme Trayner, Market Research Society, Annual Conference, 2012
A paper discussing the role of opinion research, arguing that the discipline could become the hub of inspiration for corporate communications.
A paper discussing the role of opinion research, arguing that the discipline could become the hub of inspiration for corporate communications. At its best, the author goes on to claim, opinion research can enable companies to be reflexive, to act and respond to both marked changes and nuanced shifts in opinion and to inform strategy. But in the UK at least, the relationship between corporate communications and opinion research has been limited. To overcome this, the author advocates that researchers take what currently works best in the area of reputation research and synthesise it with new areas of innovation in neuroscience and behavioural economics.
Managing a sponsored brand: the importance of sponsorship portfolio congruence
Mark D. Groza, Joe Cobbs and Tobias Schaefers, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 31, No. 1, 2012, pp. 63-84
The congruence or fit between a sponsored brand and sponsoring firm is a central tenet of sponsorship research.
The congruence or fit between a sponsored brand and sponsoring firm is a central tenet of sponsorship research. The influence of such congruence on the sponsored brand however, has received scant attention. This question is important because the strength of a sponsored organisation's brand equity is the basis for many sponsorship alliances. The two experiments undertaken in this paper empirically evaluate the dynamic effect sponsor portfolio congruence has on perceptions of the sponsored organisation's brand equity. The results of Study 1 indicate sponsor incongruence is particularly detrimental to the brand equity of the sponsored organisation at the title sponsor level. Study 2 shows this adverse effect can be attenuated by increasing the number of congruent sponsors at the presenting level. The second study also provides support for nationality as a salient congruence dimension in an international sporting context. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Follow Me! Global Marketers' Twitter Use
Eun Sook Kwon and Yongjun Sung, The Journal of Interactive Advertising, Vol. 12, Issue 1, Fall 2011, pp. 4-16
Social media have grown into a powerful marketing communications tool in the global economy. Marketers dedicate their time and resources to build trust and rapport with consumers through social media, yet a dearth of academic research addresses their use of Twitter.
Social media have grown into a powerful marketing communications tool in the global economy. Marketers dedicate their time and resources to build trust and rapport with consumers through social media, yet a dearth of academic research addresses their use of Twitter. The present research undertakes an exploratory content analysis, focusing on 44 global brands' Twitter use. The results indicate that marketers try to imbue human personality into their brands by using human representatives, personal pronouns, and verbs in the imperative form. In addition, information such as brand names and redirecting cues is frequent in brands' tweets. Overall, marketers tend to exhibit their brand presence and personalities in their Twitter accounts, thereby building relationships with current and potential consumers. This article concludes with some social media marketing implications and future research directions.
The global consumers’ view on corporate responsibility
Nicola Lindsey and Lutfee Huang, ESOMAR, Asia Pacific, Beijing, April 2009
This paper reports on a multi-country survey into consumers’ perceptions and attitudes concerning global Corporate Responsibility (CR).
This paper reports on a multi-country survey into consumers’ perceptions and attitudes concerning global Corporate Responsibility (CR). Main findings: 1) CR is defined in terms of the balance between internal (to employees, shareholders etc.), and external (to consumers, society), and also between a company acting responsibly because it needs to or because it ought to; this gives rise to four territories for CR, each containing a tension between potential good and bad practice and thus room for scepticism (public relations, professionalism, best practice, and active responsibility); 2) understanding and perceived relevance of CR varies between countries and generations (described); 3) consumers look for tangible evidence of CR; 4) Western consumers tend to distrust large multinationals and to have more confidence in smaller, niche brand, but in countries like China the opposite is the case (reasons discussed); 5) CR can emotionally support a brand purchase decision but is rarely the cause of it, and has little day-to-day relevance for consumers; 6) communication of CR must focus on relationship with consumers and give them reason to care, whereas self-serving claims do not resonate well.
Let it flow! Understanding the impact of equity transfer on brand and corporate positioning
David Pring, Curt Stenger, Trent Ross, Angela Lovejoy and Omar Rodriguez, ESOMAR, Annual Congress, Montreal, September 2008
Increasingly, companies have to balance their corporate social responsibility initiatives with both the value to society and to their business.
Increasingly, companies have to balance their corporate social responsibility initiatives with both the value to society and to their business. What agendas to pursue, whether at the corporate or brand level and the triggers which have net impact on brand equity and, ultimately, the value equation is challenging to measure. In 2007, The Coca-Cola Foundation invested nearly $100 million in community programs that included environmental stewardship, HIV/AIDS prevention and awareness, disaster relief, physical education and education. Additionally, the company has also set a goal of returning all the water it uses for its beverages and production back to nature, as well as improving the environmental efficiency of its packaging and backing the Polar Bear Support Fund. However, most of these CSR initiatives were not been actively conveyed directly to the consumer. Ipsos, working with The Coca-Cola Company, developed a program and model to identify the key drivers of the company's reputation as measured by the flow of brand equity, triggered by both macro and micro, broad-based and local community-level CSR activity. As a result, The Coca-Cola Company is now able to evaluate brand equity flow between brands and the corporate parent.
The 'glo-cal' branding toolkit - a global strategy in local markets
M. Gabriela Ugalde Romagnoli and Mauricio Yuraszeck Ardiles, ESOMAR, Latin American Conference, Mexico City, May 2008
Companies are increasingly using marketing techniques that have worked with consumers and applying them to engage their own employees.
Companies are increasingly using marketing techniques that have worked with consumers and applying them to engage their own employees. This paper shows how Nestlé is facing the challenges of entering the Latin American market, and is using local solutions to develop its global approach to 'employer branding'. Its main aim is to combine the identity of each country it works in with the values of its global proposal. It discusses the research plan, creative work, and shows how the approach adopted by advertising and media agencies could be used an example of how agencies can widen their remit.
A Disaster Is Contagious: How a Brand in Crisis Affects Other Brands
Micael Dahlén and Fredrik Lange, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 46, No. 4, Dec 2006, pp. 388-397
Negative publicity is increasing in frequency to become part of the everyday lives of consumers and everyday business of brands.
Negative publicity is increasing in frequency to become part of the everyday lives of consumers and everyday business of brands. Previous research reports several negative effects on the focal brand and tests strategies to cope with one’s own brand crisis. But one question needs examining: how does a brand crisis affect the product category and competing brands? This article reports two studies showing that a brand crisis changes consumer perceptions and the game rules of the entire product category. The effects on competing brands differ depending on similarity to the brand in crisis. Implications for advertising, positioning, and tracking are reported in the study’s findings.
Can cross-national/cultural studies presume etic equivalency in respondents’ use of extreme categories of Likert rating scales?
Catherine Roster, Gerald Albaum and Robert Rogers, International Journal of Market Research, Vol. 48, No. 6, 2006, pp. 741-759
The purpose of this study was to determine differences in extreme response to rating scales between cultures/nations in a measure of corporate reputation.
The purpose of this study was to determine differences in extreme response to rating scales between cultures/nations in a measure of corporate reputation. Separate surveys examined differences in respondent use of extreme categories for five-category Likert rating scales in a broad study of corporate reputation conducted in the United States, China, the Philippines and Ireland. Results showed that the U.S. and the Philippines samples were more likely to use extreme scale end points than the China or Ireland samples, and that neither age nor gender affected reliance upon extreme category responses within samples. Furthermore, we find that cultural tendencies towards reliance on extreme responses can exert a somewhat systematic effect on composite scale scores. This research highlights the importance of assessing etic equivalency of research instruments in cross-cultural/national research studies before conducting subsample comparisons or combining results, as culturally dictated response styles to attitudinal rating scales may threaten subsample response equivalency.
Building the corporate brand - beyond individual loyalties
Oliver Loch and Patricia Kidd, ESOMAR, Annual Congress, London, September 2006
This paper deals with the specific research methods and tools used to help UBS develop a global corporate brand with credible appeal to high net worth customers who think of he individual advisor as the 'brand'.
This paper deals with the specific research methods and tools used to help UBS develop a global corporate brand with credible appeal to high net worth customers who think of he individual advisor as the 'brand'. The Wirthlin Values approach is used to develop an emotionally-based global positioning that links the relevant elements of the advisor and the firm to motivating personal emotions shared by investors around the globe.
The relationship between corporate websites and brand equity: a conceptual framework and research agenda
Evmorfia Argyriou, Philip J. Kitchen and T.C Melewar, International Journal of Market Research, Vol. 48, No. 5, 2006, pp. 575-599
The internet has been credited as an important advertising and direct marketing channel, which has the potential to revolutionise the branding of products and services.
The internet has been credited as an important advertising and direct marketing channel, which has the potential to revolutionise the branding of products and services. Yet, several studies have been forecasting the end of traditional brand management in today’s e-markets. At the same time, there is ongoing discussion about the move towards corporate branding and brand equity. Brand equity is a long-established construct, which refers to the tangible and intangible value of brands and emphasises the strategic goals of branding, such as the creation of brand knowledge in consumers’ minds from the firm’s investment in various marketing and corporate communication programmes. With most of the world’s greatest brands now being corporate names and investing in their own corporate websites as an alternative way to reach consumers, brand equity becomes relevant in any website development and evaluation process. This paper develops a series of propositions to demonstrate how corporate brand entities may manage their brand equity at their corporate website interface. Building on existing conceptual and empirical data we present a theoretical framework and research agenda of such a relationship.
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