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A Multi-Country Examination of Hard-Sell and Soft-Sell Advertising: Comparing Global Consumer Positioning in Holistic- and Analytic-Thinking Cultures
Shintaro Okazaki, Barbara Mueller and Sandra Diehl, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 53, No. 3, 2013, pp. 258-272
Prior research has revealed that advertisements utilizing a global consumer culture positioning (GCCP) strategy more often adopt soft-sell (indirect and image-based) rather than hard-sell (direct and information-based) appeals.
Prior research has revealed that advertisements utilizing a global consumer culture positioning (GCCP) strategy more often adopt soft-sell (indirect and image-based) rather than hard-sell (direct and information-based) appeals. However, little empirical research has examined consumer preferences for soft-sell versus hard-sell advertising appeals in multi-country settings. This investigation attempted to fill this gap by proposing a multi-country research framework and conducting a pilot study. Soft-sell and hard-sell versions of a print advertisement were pretested with nearly 2,000 subjects in both holistic- and analytical-thinking countries. Findings indicated that employing a soft-sell appeal would be more effective than its hard-sell counterpart in global markets. Results from t-tests collectively indicated that soft-sell advertisements were more likely to generate favorable attitudes and less likely to evoke advertising irritation in most of the countries examined. In closing, the authors discuss theoretical as well as managerial implications, recognize important limitations, and summarize suggestions for future research.
Creative Lab: How a local target group inspires global strategy
Henrike Reinhardt and Eva Kulla, ESOMAR, Qualitative, Amsterdam, November 2012
This paper describes how traditional qualitative research was tailored to make target group insights directly actionable for Nutricia, the Danone-owned advanced medical nutrition company.
This paper describes how traditional qualitative research was tailored to make target group insights directly actionable for Nutricia, the Danone-owned advanced medical nutrition company. It also demonstrates how this research further allowed a cross-functional team of global and local managers, a creative agency and market researchers to work together on the launch of a successful communication campaign.
From Rio to the rest of the world: How innovative research from Gatorade in Latin America is impacting worldwide
Ana Alvarez and Fiona Blades, ESOMAR, Congress, Atlanta, September 2012
This paper discusses how Latin America's rapid development - of both the region's economy and its marketing industry - is impacting on market research.
This paper discusses how Latin America's rapid development - of both the region's economy and its marketing industry - is impacting on market research. The authors also explore the opportunities, issues and practicalities of conducting research in the region, using interviews with clients and agencies. The paper also showcases the proprietary work Pepsico and MESH are jointly conducting on the Gatorade energy drink brand.
Research without borders: The globalisation of the marketing and research functions in a brave new world
C. Frederic John, Anna Mariano and Liz Moore, ESOMAR, Congress, Atlanta, September 2012
In multinationals, the traditional structure of marketing has been a "hub-and-spoke" geographically-drawn approach.
In multinationals, the traditional structure of marketing has been a "hub-and-spoke" geographically-drawn approach. However, this paper argues that a number of recent trends, such as the rise of social media, have threatened the practicality of this traditional structure. It also provides recommendations on how multinationals can adapt their marketing and market research structure to account for these trends and assesses the potential role that research is likely to play in the current global environment.
Brand Growth at Mars, Inc.: How the Global Marketer Embraced Ehrenberg's Science with Creativity
Rachel Kennedy and Bruce McColl, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 52, No. 2, 2012, pp. 270-276
Can science help brands grow? Mars, Inc. has embarked on a program to apply the marketing laws originally developed and promoted by Andrew Ehrenberg.
Can science help brands grow? Mars, Inc. has embarked on a program to apply the marketing laws originally developed and promoted by Andrew Ehrenberg. Mars has discovered that both creativity and science can—and should—work together. Just as an architect marries creativity with the laws of physics, marketers should construct brand plans that embrace the laws of growth. Mars executives are learning that creativity is more productive when unleashed within known boundaries of buyer behavior. The authors share some lessons from a continuing journey that may help others also make the transformation to a marketing science culture.
Culturally incongruent messages in international advertising
Geng Cui, Xiaoyan Yang, Haizhong Wang and Hongyan Liu, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 31, No. 2, 2012, pp. 355-376
This study investigates the effect of culturally incongruent messages in international advertising on consumer responses.
This study investigates the effect of culturally incongruent messages in international advertising on consumer responses. The results of an experiment suggest that the type of cultural values (terminal vs instrumental) and ethnic background of models (foreign vs local) significantly moderate the effect of message congruency on attitude towards the advertisement, and such effect is mediated by the number of counter-arguments. Thus, culturally incongruent messages can be effective if they avoid conflict on a fundamental value or are positioned as originating from a foreign culture. Moreover, model background moderates the effect of message congruency on brand attitude and buying intention. These findings have meaningful implications for international marketing across societies of different cultural traditions.
Global Asian youth culture - Connected from Delhi to Shanghai to LA
Robin Brown and Joseph Chen, ESOMAR, Asia Pacific, Shanghai, April 2012
East and South Asian diasporas are rapidly growing in both North America and globally. They are also strongly connected to rapidly growing Asian markets that themselves are increasing in influence globally.
East and South Asian diasporas are rapidly growing in both North America and globally. They are also strongly connected to rapidly growing Asian markets that themselves are increasing in influence globally. A demographic characteristic of these diasporas is their youth. This paper addresses the implications of this phenomenon for any Asian, global or North American business. It looks specifically at the potential impact for Unilever's personal care business and how Unilever's business can maximize the opportunities it represents.
Growth in global consumer markets: Developing strategy for where and when
Jeffrey Hunter, ESOMAR, CEE Research Forum, Krakow, March 2012
This presentation describes an approach that can be used to create a global growth strategy for consumer packaged goods.
This presentation describes an approach that can be used to create a global growth strategy for consumer packaged goods. The approach uses clustering methods and regression methods to guide the strategic choices of which markets to enter, and when to enter. The framework consists of two general steps: 1) cluster markets, and 2) identify the factors that drive growth. Market clusters are created from the profiles on the individuals. In the second step, these clustering and other variables are linked to some critical dependent business variable such as per capita consumption or per capita spend on the relevant category of products.
The Tension between Strategy and Execution: Challenges for International Advertising Research - Globalization is Much More Than Universal Branding
John B. Ford, Barbara Mueller and Charles R. Taylor; Insights from Nigel Hollis, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 51, No. 1, 2011, 50th Anniversary Supplement, pp. 27-41
The primary "international advertising" topic over the past five decades is the question of whether, and to what degree, advertising can and should be standardized.
The primary "international advertising" topic over the past five decades is the question of whether, and to what degree, advertising can and should be standardized. This article begins with a discussion of the cumulative findings of this stream of research, followed by a look at major theories that have been applied to international advertising research, with a special focus on the application of culture’s use as a conceptual basis for advertising studies. An exploration of the recent trend toward considering advertising in the context of global branding strategies is followed by a discussion of methodological issues in international advertising research, focusing on problems that have been identified and "best practices" for researchers in overcoming these problems.
Glocalization - a Measure of Global Brands: Adaptation to Local Cultures
Olga Churkina and Corrine Sandler, ESOMAR, Asia Pacific, Melbourne, 2011
Multicultural targeting is every global brand's dream. The market research firm Fresh Intelligence has developed a "Glocalization Score" to measure values of global brands in six countries.
Multicultural targeting is every global brand's dream. The market research firm Fresh Intelligence has developed a "Glocalization Score" to measure values of global brands in six countries. An on-line survey with n=3000 respondents was held to identify leading country-specific and brand-specific values. The "Glocalization Score" model was developed to measure the correlation of brand values to country values. Strong significant correlation between Glocalization Score and Brand Strength illustrated that a brands' glocalization is critical for success, and glocalization efforts can be easily measured by research professionals.
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