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Fancy a coffee with Friends in 'Central Perk'? Reverse product placement, fictional brands and purchase intention
Laurent Muzellec, Christopher Kanitz and Theodore Lynn, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 32, No. 3, 2013, pp. 399-417
Fictional brands are brands that exist only in the world of fiction and not the real physical world. Reverse product placement consists of transforming these fictional brands into products and services in the real physical world.
Fictional brands are brands that exist only in the world of fiction and not the real physical world. Reverse product placement consists of transforming these fictional brands into products and services in the real physical world. This paper posits that consumers, despite having no pre-existing experience of fictional brands in the real world, may develop positive attitudes towards fictional brands; hence the fundamental managerial question is to ascertain whether these positive attitudes can drive purchase intention to justify the investment into a real product or service based on the fictional brand. Using two fictional service brands, ‘MacLaren’s Pub’ and ‘Central Perk’, featured respectively in How I Met Your Mother and Friends, this study confirms the existence of protobrands, and shows that attitudes towards a fictional brand are driven by perceived service quality, identification with the brand and attitudes towards the television programme. The study goes on to provide evidence that attitudes towards the fictional brand can influence purchase intention of a future defictionalised brand in the real world. The paper contributes to product placement and branding literature in a new emerging area.
Observations: Unpaid product placement: the elephant in the room in UK TV's new paid-for product placement market
Chris Hackley and Rungpaka Amy Hackley née Tiwsakul, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 31, No. 4, 2012, pp. 703-718
Paid-for product placement was permitted for the first time on commercial TV in the UK by media regulator Ofcom in February 2011.
Paid-for product placement was permitted for the first time on commercial TV in the UK by media regulator Ofcom in February 2011. At the time of writing, some 12 months later, estimates suggest there have been fewer than 20 paid placement deals, amounting to revenue less than 2% of the £150 million that optimists estimated the industry to be worth. In this commentary we draw on confidential and informal interviews with industry insiders to set previous academic research in the field within the UK’s unique regulatory context, and we highlight problems inherent in the new industry. Foremost among these is the reluctance of the broadcasters and Ofcom to acknowledge that the free prop supply system that has provided branded scene props to UK productions, including the BBC, for some 30 years, has been and continues to be a de facto product placement industry. Given that, even in a mature paid-for placement market such as the US, industry insiders estimate that 80% of brands on TV are not paid for, we argue that unpaid product placement, also known as free prop supply, is the elephant in the room in regulation and academic research. We make suggestions as to how the impasse in the UK TV product placement industry might be resolved, and we outline ways in which academic research might play a supporting role.
Young adults' responses to product placement in movies and television shows: A comparative study of the United States and South Korea
Taejun (David) Lee, Yongjun Sung and Sejung Marina Choi, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 30, No. 3, 2011, pp. 479-507
This research examines young adults’ attitudes towards product placement in films and television shows from two countries that represent contrasting cultural distinctions: the US and Korea.
This research examines young adults’ attitudes towards product placement in films and television shows from two countries that represent contrasting cultural distinctions: the US and Korea. The results suggest that young adults in both countries perceive film product placement in a similar way but, with respect to television, Korean respondents tend to perceive it as less effective in enhancing content realism and more unethical and misleading. In addition, the findings suggest that, for both film and TV, materialism, attitude towards advertising, and realism enhancement appeared to be significant predictors of consumer cognitive response to product placement. However, cross-cultural differences were observed for TV product placement. In the US, materialism and realism enhancement were found to be most powerful predictors of cognitive response to product placement. In contrast, attitude towards advertising and materialism were found to be the strongest predictors in Korea. Implications for both advertising researchers and practitioners are provided.
How media factors affect audience responses to brand placement
Eva van Reijmersdal, Edith Smit and Peter Neijens, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 29, No. 2, 2010, pp. 279-302
This study investigates the influence of media factors on brand placement effects in a real-life setting.
This study investigates the influence of media factors on brand placement effects in a real-life setting. Although many studies on brand placement have been conducted, insights into context effects on brand placement reactions are scarce. The impact of objective and subjective media context factors is studied for brands placed in four different television shows. Drawing on a survey of 1195 viewers, we found that genre, programme attitude and the programme’s informational value had positive effects on brand placement reactions. These results support theories on ‘spillover effects’ and media gratifications. The effect of genre on viewers’ behaviour was partially mediated by the programme’s perceived informational value. This study shows the importance of context factors in brand placement effects.
Measuring the impact of contextual advertising on television
John Clifton, Kathryn Larkin, Stacey Lynn Schulman and Carl Marci, ARF Experiential Learning, Re:Think conference, 2010
This paper seeks to measure the impact of contextual advertising on television, a medium which has generally been primarily about reach.
This paper seeks to measure the impact of contextual advertising on television, a medium which has generally been primarily about reach. Building on the ideas of emotional priming and non-conscious information processing, Turner Broadcasting launched TVinContext to offer advertisers an opportunity to run ad creative adjacent to contextually relevant scenes across a large in-house feature film library. As well as the usual measures at the conscious level - recall, purchase intent and so on - non-conscious measures included the use of biometrics and eye tracking. The results strongly suggest that contextual advertising on TV has a measurable effect, but while the conscious response can deliver higher recall, it is not always indicative of non-conscious processing.
A New Branch of Advertising: Reviewing Factors That Influence Reactions to Product Placement
Eva A. van Reijmersdal, Peter C. Neijens and Edith G. Smit, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 49, No. 4, December 2009, pp. 429-449
This literature review presents a quantitative synthesis of 57 studies on product placement and shows which factors are most effective.
This literature review presents a quantitative synthesis of 57 studies on product placement and shows which factors are most effective. It shows that placement characteristics, such as placement commerciality, modality, and prominence, have a strong impact on audience reactions. Audience characteristics, such as attitudes and beliefs about brand placement, advertising, and media, also shape audience reactions to brand placement. Advertising and psychological theories provide valuable explanations for the majority of the effects. However, the authors call for development of theories on capacity constraints and implicit processing as these can explain effects that are specific to brand placement.
Today’s practice of brand placement and the industry behind it
Edith Smit, Eva van Reijmersdal and Peter Neijens, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 28, No. 5, 2009, pp. 761-782
This article presents a content analysis of brand placement on Dutch television, followed by 24 interviews with the parties involved.
This article presents a content analysis of brand placement on Dutch television, followed by 24 interviews with the parties involved. By combining a content analysis and a practitioners’ perspective, this article offers unique insights into the increasingly popular phenomenon of integrating advertising into television content. Analysis of one week’s television programming showed that programmes with brand placement are growing into a significant part of Dutch television. A fifth of these sponsored programmes can be classified as brand-integrated programmes in which brands are an intrinsic part of the programme. The practitioner interviews showed that these brand-integrated programmes were considered as the future of advertising. Moreover, the interviews gave insights into the mutual relationships between the different parties, showing that practitioners use the law restrictions to estimate the acceptance levels of the audience with respect to television sponsoring.
Product placement in entertainment media: proposing business process models
Susan Chang, Jay Newell and Charles T. Salmon, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 28, No. 5, 2009, pp. 783-806
Product placement within entertainment media has gained increasing attention from both the industry and scholars.
Product placement within entertainment media has gained increasing attention from both the industry and scholars. This study uses Social Exchange Theory to explore the process through which products and brands become embedded within motion pictures and television. Through in-depth interviews with executives from leading entertainment studios, multinational manufacturers and integrated marketing firms, this research identifies the participants involved in the process, and offers three models of the product placements: serendipitous placements, opportunistic placements and planned placements. The models provide a conceptual and practical framework for navigating the product placement process.
Memory and perception of brand mentions and placement of brands in songs
Eric Delattre and Ana Colovic, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 28, No. 5, 2009, pp. 807-842
Although brand placement in movies and TV series has attracted significant interest from researchers and practitioners, little is known about the financed insertion of brands in songs.
Although brand placement in movies and TV series has attracted significant interest from researchers and practitioners, little is known about the financed insertion of brands in songs. However, evidence is growing that this kind of placement could be of interest for addressing certain types of target audience. This article sheds light on this new form of communication, and highlights its interest for advertisers. It also studies its effectiveness. Based on a web survey, the paper analyses recall and recognition of 17 brands placed in two songs 'Tes Parents' (Your parents), a French chanson-style song by Vincent Delerm, and 'Wonderbra', a rap song by MC Solaar), and attitude towards the use of brands in songs.
The Efficacy of Brand-Execution Tactics in TV Advertising, Brand Placements, and Internet Advertising
Jenni Romaniuk, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 49, No. 2, June 2009, pp. 143-150
This article examines brand-execution tactics (showing and naming the brand) in television, internet video advertising, and brand placement within TV programs.
This article examines brand-execution tactics (showing and naming the brand) in television, internet video advertising, and brand placement within TV programs. Multiple research studies provide evidence that showing the brand early and often, and having at least one verbal mention as well, enhances brand recall. By contrast, the evidence is mixed for verbal frequency, and there is no support for the brand simply being present for a long time. These branding execution effects improve recall (brand identification), but not persuasion. A review of current practice across a variety of media (TV ads, TV product placements and comparable internet ads) finds that, in different ways, ads in these media do not conform to the `best practice’ suggested by the empirical generalisations reported in this paper. From an issue of JAR devoted to `empirical generalisations’: the papers were first presented at a conference at the Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania in December 2008.
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