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The Secret Sauce for Super Bowl Advertising: What Makes Marketing Work in the World's Most Watched Event?
Jin-Woo Kim, Traci H. Freling, and Douglas B. Grisaffe, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 53, No. 2, 2013, pp. 134-149
This study investigated the relationship between Super Bowl advertising and advertisers’ market valuation, identifying several factors that influence the financial rewards of this media-placement strategy.
This study investigated the relationship between Super Bowl advertising and advertisers’ market valuation, identifying several factors that influence the financial rewards of this media-placement strategy. Specifically, the authors examined the impact of each commercial’s featured characters and appeals—and the product benefits promoted—on abnormal stock returns for sponsoring companies that appear in Super Bowl advertising. Event study results showed that Super Bowl advertising is positively related to abnormal stock returns for advertisers. Cross-sectional regression analyses also indicated that market value of Super Bowl advertisers is positively related to likeable characters, emotional appeals, and approach messaging. The combined use of likeable characters with either emotional appeals or approach messages also is positively associated with firm valuation.
Do new forms of television advertising occasion better recall than traditional advertising spots?
María Arrazola, José de Hevia, Pedro Reinares and Ricardo Reinares Lara, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 32, No. 2, 2013, pp. 281-300
The loss of effectiveness of television advertising centred on advertising spots has caused the development, and subsequent consolidation, of new forms of advertising within this medium.
The loss of effectiveness of television advertising centred on advertising spots has caused the development, and subsequent consolidation, of new forms of advertising within this medium. While management assumes that these new forms of advertising generate greater recall, in order to justify their usage, there is a noticeable lack of research evidence to prove this supposition. Therefore, in this article we use a representative sample of Spanish television audiences to compare the advertising recall that advertising spots generate, as opposed to that occasioned by a combination of new television advertising formats. The empirical analysis was carried out by means of an Ordered Probit model, which showed that the new forms of advertising gave rise to better recall than advertising spots, as much with regard to aided as with unaided recall.
How to target TV ads: A buyer's guide to set top box targeting algorithms
Brendan Kitts, ARF Experiential Learning, Re:Think conference, 2013
With television advertising targeting undergoing a revolution in capabilities and accuracy, this paper reviews a variety of different targeting algorithms.
With television advertising targeting undergoing a revolution in capabilities and accuracy, this paper reviews a variety of different targeting algorithms. These range from the traditional age-gender targeting methods employed based on Nielsen ratings, to new approaches that attempt to target high probability buyers using Set Top Box data.
Understanding the Invisibility of the Asian-American Television Audience: Why Marketers Often Overlook an Audience of "Model" Consumers
Amy Jo Coffey, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 53, No. 1, 2013, pp. 101-118
Asian-Americans lack the advertiser recognition and investment levels enjoyed by other ethnic groups in the United States.
Asian-Americans lack the advertiser recognition and investment levels enjoyed by other ethnic groups in the United States. Given this demographic group’s greater purchasing power and comparable growth rate, online survey and in-depth executive interviews reveal how US Asians’ income, language, and other audience traits are valued by US television advertisers and compares these perceptions to those for Hispanics. Recommendations are offered to overcome reported advertiser misperceptions and agency obstacles and to help encourage investment in this growing and affluent demographic segment.
From wired to the airwaves: Migrating online creative to TV
Rob Cartwright and Paul McClean, ARF Experiential Learning, Re:Think conference, 2011
The Coca-Cola Company developed the "Happiness Machine" online video campaign. Released solely through Coca-Cola's Facebook page, it went viral like nothing else previously created by Coke.
The Coca-Cola Company developed the "Happiness Machine" online video campaign. Released solely through Coca-Cola's Facebook page, it went viral like nothing else previously created by Coke. This paper looks at how the value of this creative can be evaluated for release as a TV commercial and whether it contained a formula for successful future online offerings. This was done through the Millward Brown Link test and qualitative research, which produced a 30-sec spot that aired in the US. Follow-up activity was conducted in other countries and an estimated 210 million people worldwide interacted with Happiness Machine. This case demonstrates that great creative ideas can seed in any medium but it's a delicate process.
Survey-Based Targeting Fine-Tunes Television Media Planning: A Case for Accuracy and Cost Efficiency
J. Alexander Smith, Brett Boyle and Hugh M. Cannon, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 50, No. 4, 2010
This paper examines the use of single-source, survey-based targeting data to complement ratings data for television media planning.
This paper examines the use of single-source, survey-based targeting data to complement ratings data for television media planning. We argue that the essence of targeting rests in determining the relative concentration of product users in various media audiences. This product-media concentration reflects the motivation and lifestyles of product and media users and is unlikely to vary significantly over time or across markets. Using data from SMRB, we argue that the product-media selectivity captured in the selectivity-index can be combined with conventionally measured ratings data to accurately estimate target market ratings. These, in turn, can be used for more accurate, cost-efficient television media planning.
Assigning television commercial videotapes to time slots under alternative message spacing policies
Michael J. Brusco and Renu Singh, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 29, No. 3, 2010, pp. 431-450
A number of studies in the psychological and marketing literature have focused on the effects of message spacing on consumer memory and judgement.
A number of studies in the psychological and marketing literature have focused on the effects of message spacing on consumer memory and judgement. The importance of message spacing has also been exemplified by a crucial scheduling problem in the broadcast television industry that requires the assignment of multiple airings of commercial videotapes to purchased slots of air time. Existing models for this problem are restricted to the case of equal spacing of successive airings in terms of slot position. In light of the fact that equal spacing of messages is not necessarily the best course of action in all situations, we present an alternative model that enables greater flexibility with respect to the spacing of commercial messages. For example, the model allows for equal temporal spacing of commercials in addition to equal spacing in terms of slot position. More importantly, the model permits spacing options that allow for pulsing strategies associated with well-separated bursts of commercial airings, as well as the consideration of spacing decisions when commercials have different durations. We demonstrate a heuristic for solving the scheduling problem under various message spacing policies. We believe that our model, which is effective and adaptable, has considerable promise for practical scheduling problems as well as subsequent experimental research.
Television: Back to the Future
Byron Sharp, Virginia Beal, and Martin Collins, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 49, No. 2, June 2009, pp. 211-219
TV keeps changing, and viewers have more alternatives than ever. Yet television-viewing behaviour continues to follow some law-like patterns that have remained in place over the past 40 years.
TV keeps changing, and viewers have more alternatives than ever. Yet television-viewing behaviour continues to follow some law-like patterns that have remained in place over the past 40 years. These empirical generalizations suggest that TV will remain the preeminent fast and vast advertising medium, if a more complex and expensive one. Knowledge of these empirical laws—including the special reach of high-rating programs, channel loyalty, low program repeat rates, lack of segmented audiences, and weak genre loyalty—can be used to guide advertisers in buying the most effective TV schedules. They give us confidence that TV will remain an effective advertising vehicle for many years to come. From an issue of JAR devoted to `empirical generalisations’: the papers were first presented at a conference at the Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania in December 2008.
The Spacing Effects of Multiple Exposures on Memory: Implications for Advertising Scheduling
Alan G. Sawyer, Hayden Noel, and Chris Janiszewski, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 49, No. 2, June 2009, pp. 193-197
The “spacing effect” refers to the fact that longer intervals between exposures (such as successive presentations of online pop-ups) result in better learning than shorter intervals.
The “spacing effect” refers to the fact that longer intervals between exposures (such as successive presentations of online pop-ups) result in better learning than shorter intervals. This article offers nine empirical generalizations (EGs) about the overall size of the spacing effect and how it varies under different conditions. Overall, spacing effects are found to be robust, statistically significant and large. The EGs are based on results of a meta-analysis of laboratory experiments in cognitive psychology and marketing. Several implications of the results are proposed for planning advertising schedules for the new media as well as more traditional media. From an issue of JAR devoted to `empirical generalisations’: the papers were first presented at a conference at the Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania in December 2008.
Empirical Evidence of TV Advertising Effectiveness
Joel Rubinson, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 49, No. 2, June 2009, pp. 220-226
In this article, three hypotheses were examined that, if accepted, would lead us to conclude that the effectiveness of TV advertising has declined over time.
In this article, three hypotheses were examined that, if accepted, would lead us to conclude that the effectiveness of TV advertising has declined over time. Seven different databases—accounting for a total of 388 case histories—were accessed to conduct a form of meta-analysis to address this issue. These databases include results from advertising-weight tests, marketing-mix modeling, copy testing, return-on-marketing analysis from quasi-experimental design, and media-planning tools. The evidence we studied does not support the acceptance of any of these hypotheses, leading us to conclude that impressions from TV advertising appear to be as effective as ever, even possibly increasing in effectiveness. In terms of specific marketing objectives, the evidence suggests that the impact of TV on sales lift appears to operate primarily by generating brand awareness, suggesting that an effective marketing plan that uses TV should do so in conjunction with multiple forms of marketing in order to impact all stages of the consumer purchase process. From an issue of JAR devoted to `empirical generalisations’: the papers were first presented at a conference at the Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania in December 2008.
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