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The Secret Sauce for Super Bowl Advertising: What Makes Marketing Work in the World's Most Watched Event?
Jin-Woo Kim, Traci H. Freling, and Douglas B. Grisaffe, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 53, No. 2, 2013, pp. 134-149
This study investigated the relationship between Super Bowl advertising and advertisers’ market valuation, identifying several factors that influence the financial rewards of this media-placement strategy.
This study investigated the relationship between Super Bowl advertising and advertisers’ market valuation, identifying several factors that influence the financial rewards of this media-placement strategy. Specifically, the authors examined the impact of each commercial’s featured characters and appeals—and the product benefits promoted—on abnormal stock returns for sponsoring companies that appear in Super Bowl advertising. Event study results showed that Super Bowl advertising is positively related to abnormal stock returns for advertisers. Cross-sectional regression analyses also indicated that market value of Super Bowl advertisers is positively related to likeable characters, emotional appeals, and approach messaging. The combined use of likeable characters with either emotional appeals or approach messages also is positively associated with firm valuation.
If an Advertisement Runs Online and No One Sees It, Is It Still an Ad? Empirical Generalizations in Digital Advertising
Stephanie Flosi, Gian Fulgoni, and Andrea Vollman, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 53, No. 2, 2013, pp. 192-199
This study presents findings from three charter studies involving leading global advertisers in three key geographical regions: the United States, Europe, and Canada.
This study presents findings from three charter studies involving leading global advertisers in three key geographical regions: the United States, Europe, and Canada. The goal of the research was to identify and better understand the incidence of sub-optimal digital campaign delivery as it pertains to viewability, audience delivery, geographic targeting, and brand safety. Through an evaluation of the study findings, several significant empirical generalizations emerged, and this article highlights these generalizations and discusses their implications for the digital advertising ecosystem.
Maximizing the Online Video Viewer and Advertiser Experience
Cortney Henseler and Joe Blechman, ARF Experiential Learning, Audience Measurement 8.0, 2013
This study by AOL, the US internet service provider, investigates how to optimize online video. It looks specifically at short versus long form videos to understand consumers' perceptions of these formats and the advertising within them.
This study by AOL, the US internet service provider, investigates how to optimize online video. It looks specifically at short versus long form videos to understand consumers' perceptions of these formats and the advertising within them. Ad effectiveness and creative implications for advertisers in these environments are explored. The study also examines the advertising and content mix required to optimise the online ad options for a variety of different online videos. Total ad time, optimal placement, length of spots and creative concepts are discussed. Combined, the insights from this research set the standard for optimising video and ad content based on consumer insights. The findings provide direction to advertisers on how to effectively communicate to consumers within online video environments.
Understanding the drivers of standout video experiences
Jared Skolnick and Shawn Baron, ARF Experiential Learning, Re:Think conference, 2013
This research paper explores how four key elements of online video advertising - consumer engagement mode, player size, location on the page and website quality - may affect end users' feelings towards a brand, and whether they inspire or discourage action.
This research paper explores how four key elements of online video advertising - consumer engagement mode, player size, location on the page and website quality - may affect end users' feelings towards a brand, and whether they inspire or discourage action. Consumer engagement mode (click-to-play vs. auto-play) was found to be the most important element for advertisers to consider when their objective is driving brand awareness. The quality of the website a video ad appears on was found to be the primary driver of brand perception, consumer intent, engagement, and overall satisfaction. The research also found that click-to-play ads elicit nearly four times more positive emotions from consumers than auto-play ads and that larger video players evoke higher levels of brand awareness.
Understanding the Invisibility of the Asian-American Television Audience: Why Marketers Often Overlook an Audience of "Model" Consumers
Amy Jo Coffey, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 53, No. 1, 2013, pp. 101-118
Asian-Americans lack the advertiser recognition and investment levels enjoyed by other ethnic groups in the United States.
Asian-Americans lack the advertiser recognition and investment levels enjoyed by other ethnic groups in the United States. Given this demographic group’s greater purchasing power and comparable growth rate, online survey and in-depth executive interviews reveal how US Asians’ income, language, and other audience traits are valued by US television advertisers and compares these perceptions to those for Hispanics. Recommendations are offered to overcome reported advertiser misperceptions and agency obstacles and to help encourage investment in this growing and affluent demographic segment.
Judging a Magazine by Its Advertising: Exploring the Effects of Advertising Content on Perceptions of a Media Vehicle
Sara Rosengren and Micael Dahlén, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 53, No. 1, 2013, pp. 61-70
This article explores how changes in advertising content can lead to different perceptions of a media vehicle.
This article explores how changes in advertising content can lead to different perceptions of a media vehicle. In two experimental studies, the advertising content of a magazine is manipulated in terms of being high-end-versus-low-end, for high-versus-low reputation brands, and high-versus-low execution quality. The results show how the advertising content can be either beneficial or detrimental for magazine perceptions. By looking at the influence of advertising content—rather than advertising quantity—the studies complement advertising-clutter research and point to different ways in which media owners can manage their advertising content.
Second-by-Second Analysis of Advertising Exposure in TV Pods: The Dynamics of Position, Length, and Timing
Srinivasan Swaminathan and Robert Kent, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 53, No. 1, 2013, pp. 91-100
This study explores how message delivery may differ for television commercials that appear in various pod positions.
This study explores how message delivery may differ for television commercials that appear in various pod positions. Channel changing at the onset of commercials often may lead to higher exposure levels for advertisements in the first pod position. When advertising pods are relatively long, viewers may return within the pod, so commercials in the first and last pod positions may have higher exposure levels than commercials in middle pod positions. The set of advantageous pod positions, however, can differ in commercial breaks that appear near the beginning and end of programs. Ideas for audience measurement, media buying, and advertising creative are developed.
Are You In Good Hands? Slogan Recall: What Really Matters
Chiranjeev Kohli, Sunil Thomas and Rajneesh Suri, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 53, No. 1, 2013, pp. 31-42
Slogans are very important in brand building, and recall is considered one of the most effective measures of slogan success.
Slogans are very important in brand building, and recall is considered one of the most effective measures of slogan success. For this study, 220 respondents were asked to recall slogans. Factors impacting recall of the 150 short-listed slogans were investigated. The study relied on objective (rather than perceptual) data, and factored in the natural variance associated with the variables of interest in the marketplace without imposing the artificial constraints of lab settings. The results suggest that to improve recall, slogans should be retained for long periods of time and supported by extensive marketing budgets. When designing the slogans, care should also be taken to keep them short. However, contrary to expectations, none of the other design elements—complexity of slogans, use of jingles, and use of rhymes—had an impact on slogan recall.
How banner ads can be effective: investigating the influences of exposure duration and banner ad complexity
Kai-Yu Wang, Eric Shih and Laura A. Peracchio, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 32, No. 1, 2013, pp. 121-141
This research examines the impacts of exposure duration and banner ad complexity on advertising persuasion in a web advertising environment.
This research examines the impacts of exposure duration and banner ad complexity on advertising persuasion in a web advertising environment. Processing fluency is used to explain the underlying process that occurs among consumers during exposure to advertisements, and refers to the ease of stimulus encoding and processing that is facilitated by prior exposure to a banner ad. Based on previous studies (e.g. Reber et al. 1998), this research used a priming phase and a testing phase, in which respondents viewed two banner ads for the same brand. A banner ad presented in the priming phase facilitates viewer processing of a target banner ad in the testing phase due to processing fluency. The findings show that, when a banner ad is difficult to process in the priming phase, increasing the duration of exposure to the ad in the priming phase causes a linear increase in respondent attitudes towards the target ad and brand in the testing phase. When the priming banner ad is moderately difficult to process, increasing the exposure duration in the priming phase first increases, and then decreases, respondent attitudes towards the target ad and brand (an inverted-U pattern) in the testing phase. When the priming banner ad is easy to process, increasing the exposure duration in the priming phase first decreases, and then increases, respondent attitudes towards the target ad and brand (a U pattern) in the testing phase.
Online advertising and congruency effects: it depends on how you look at it
Wim Janssens, Patrick De Pelsmacker and Maggie Geuens, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 31, No. 3, 2012, pp. 579-604
Three studies investigate the moderating role of divided attention in the relationship between thematic (in)congruency between a web page and a web ad, and evaluations of and click intention towards the embedded web ad.
Three studies investigate the moderating role of divided attention in the relationship between thematic (in)congruency between a web page and a web ad, and evaluations of and click intention towards the embedded web ad. The first study establishes the traditional priming effect in sequential web page – web ad exposure. Study two manipulates viewers’ opportunity to divide their attention when simultaneously exposed to a web page and a web ad, and Study three measures divided attention by means of gaze jumps in a simultaneous exposure situation. In the case of simultaneous exposure to a web page and a web ad, a congruency effect occurs when there is little opportunity to divide the attention between the web page and the ad, and when there are few gaze jumps between the web page and the web ad. In these cases, web ads that are thematically congruent with the web page result in more positive responses. This effect reverses when there is more opportunity to divide the attention between the web page and the web ad, and when the number of gaze jumps is high: web ads incongruent with the web page lead to more positive responses. Undivided attention benefits web ads that are congruent with the web page in which they are embedded, but divided attention benefits those that are incongruent with the web page.
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