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The High Stakes of Sweepstakes: Too Much of a Good Thing Can Demotivate Digital Consumers
Caroline Wilcox and Arch G. Woodside, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 52, No. 2, 2012, pp. 167-179
In preference-matching contexts—specifically, where people enter hoping to find some particular product or service they already know themselves to prefer—more choices should increase the likelihood that they will be successful in their search.
In preference-matching contexts—specifically, where people enter hoping to find some particular product or service they already know themselves to prefer—more choices should increase the likelihood that they will be successful in their search. Increasing the number of choices, however, actually increases the cognitive workload of consumers, and they may decide consciously or unconsciously simply to apply heuristics—such as clicking the delete button on complex e-mails. This study tested these two alternative theories in a large-field experiment focusing on advertising an experience brand (France as a vacation destination) to Americans under multiple treatment conditions. The findings supported the theory that fewer choices increase behavioral responses, but this effect reversed when an e-mail included a sweepstakes offer. Consequently, the authors found that “it depends on what is offered in conjunction with the direct-sales offers” may be the more accurate perspective than the “less-is-more” proposition.
A Content Analysis of Registration Processes on Websites: How Advertisers Gather Information to Customize Marketing Communications
Jan Ahrens and James R. Coyle, The Journal of Interactive Advertising, Vol. 11, Issue 2, Spring 2011, pp. 12-26
The proper implementation and design of registration pages is a crucial consideration in the development of websites for two reasons: First, users often navigate through them to receive future marketing communications.
The proper implementation and design of registration pages is a crucial consideration in the development of websites for two reasons: First, users often navigate through them to receive future marketing communications. Second, advertisers can gain valuable contact information through registration processes that allow them to customize marketing communications. This content analysis investigates the implementation and design of such processes by comparing the registration processes established by large and small websites, as well as websites of pure play companies versus click-and-mortar companies. Differences emerge across several variables. The results have implications for advertising researchers and practitioners and suggest some registration process best practices.
Consumers’ intentions to opt in to SMS advertising: a cross-national study of young Americans and Koreans
Alexander Muk, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 26, No. 2, 2007, pp. 177-198
This paper examines the differences between American young consumers and their Korean counterparts’ interests in accepting SMS advertising via their mobile phones.
This paper examines the differences between American young consumers and their Korean counterparts’ interests in accepting SMS advertising via their mobile phones. The appeal of using the mobile phone as an advertising medium is its accessibility because it can pinpoint the locations of mobile phone users. The results of the study provide preliminary evidence that consumers’ attitudes and beliefs do have significant positive relationships with intentions to opt in to the new medium. The theoretical model for the study is based on employing the theory of reasoned action as the underlying structure to operationalise the conceptual constructs proposed in the diffusion theory. The study identifies the potential of a new research domain in advertising, presents a conceptual framework for its examination and suggests the importance of constructs under study.
Consumers’ attitudes toward unsolicited commercial e-mail and postal direct mail marketing methods: intrusiveness, perceived loss of control, and irritation
Mariko Morimoto and Susan Chang, The Journal of Interactive Advertising, Vol. 7, No. 1, Fall 2006
Using Psychological Reactance as the framework, this study sought to understand consumer attitudes towards two major direct marketing techniques: unsolicited commercial e-mail and postal direct mail.
Using Psychological Reactance as the framework, this study sought to understand consumer attitudes towards two major direct marketing techniques: unsolicited commercial e-mail and postal direct mail. In particular, audience perceptions of advertising intrusiveness, perceived loss of control (as conceptualized by Psychological Reactance), and irritation regarding the direct marketing techniques were investigated. The results of this survey study (N=119) indicated that recipients perceived unsolicited e-mails as more intrusive and irritating than postal direct mail. This study contributed to the theory of Psychological Reactance by indicating that recipients did not feel a loss of control regarding spam, thus Psychological Reactance was not fully supported in the context of these marketing communication techniques. Suggestions for direct marketing practitioners conclude the paper.
Recall Effect of Short Message Service as a Complementary Marketing Communications Instrument
Joost Wouters and Martin Wetzels, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 46, No. 2, June 2006, pp. 209-216
A quasi-experimental study was designed to investigate the recall effect of Short Message Service (SMS) as a complementary marketing communications instrument.
A quasi-experimental study was designed to investigate the recall effect of Short Message Service (SMS) as a complementary marketing communications instrument. An experimental group (EG) was formed, consisting of people who had called an SMS number mentioned in a car brand campaign. A control group was formed using respondents who replied on a television quiz question through SMS. For both groups unaided and aided recall for two similar car brand campaigns was recorded. In campaign 1 no SMS support was used; campaign 2 was the original SMS-supported campaign. Using an omnibus x2 test, the data show a statistically significant effect supporting the hypothesis that SMS, as a relatively cheap complementary instrument, can boost the recall effect of an advertising campaign. Furthermore, two limitations of the study are discussed: limited control regarding respondents’ exposure to the communication campaigns and the relatively long time elapsed between exposure to the campaigns and recall measurement, which necessitate further research.
Consumer Responses to Interactive Advertising Campaigns Coupling Short-Message-Service Direct Marketing and TV Commercials
Randolph J. Trappey Iii and Arch G. Woodside, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 45, No. 4, Dec 2005, pp. 382-401
As a direct marketing tool, electronic Short Message Service (SMS) is likely to surpass internet-based advertising before the end of 2006.
As a direct marketing tool, electronic Short Message Service (SMS) is likely to surpass internet-based advertising before the end of 2006. This article profiles heavy and light consumer acceptors of SMS direct advertising texts and SMS direct marketing prompts to watch TV programs. The article includes empirical findings of practitioner campaign evaluations of SMS-TV direct marketing campaigns in U.K. and U.S. markets. The results support the view that younger consumers higher in social class are the most willing to accept SMS direct advertising text and respond favorably to SMS-TV integrated marketing communications. The article closes with a call for true experiments to validate consumer acceptance and use of SMS-TV interactive, commercial, communications via split-run testing.
Adoption of digital video recorders and advertising: threats or opportunities?
John A. Fortunato and Daniel M. Windels, The Journal of Interactive Advertising, Vol. 6, No. 1, Fall 2005
It can be said that every time the technological communication environment changes so to does the advertising environment.
It can be said that every time the technological communication environment changes so to does the advertising environment. Advertisers who do not carefully monitor and adapt to the technological communication environment run the risk of losing millions of dollars on inefficient advertising expenditures. The digital video recorder (DVR) is the latest technological innovation to which advertisers must adapt. By easily allowing the viewer to skip commercials the DVR is a device that could have potentially huge implications on advertising creative and placement strategies. The DVR is a clear threat to the advertising industry, but there are some opportunities for advertisers that can be explored because of DVR technology. The opportunities exist through an interdependent relationship between television networks and advertisers in creating a communication environment that is economically beneficial to both entities. The focus of this article is on understanding how and why DVR's are being used by the audience and examines the potential threats and opportunities that advertisers must be aware of in adapting to this technology.
Losers and Lovers: Mobile Phone Services Advertising and the New Media Consumer/Producer
Christina Spurgeon, The Journal of Interactive Advertising, Vol. 5, No. 2, Spring 2005
How do advertising practices need to adapt and change in order to effectively engage new media consumers? Integration has been an important, overarching industry response in recent decades (Cappo 2003; Turow 1997).
How do advertising practices need to adapt and change in order to effectively engage new media consumers? Integration has been an important, overarching industry response in recent decades (Cappo 2003; Turow 1997). More recently, branded content has attracted a lot of attention as an integrated technique that is potentially well-suited to nationally and internationally recognized brands (Donaton 2004). This paper considers ‘conversational’ interaction with consumers as another technique that has been successfully used to market new media usage, most notably to drive consumer adoption of mobile phone data services. It also highlights the international significance of the mobile phone as an immensely popular new media platform, but one which has generally developed “under the radar” (Bond 1998) of much academic and trade literature. Recent developments in new media and communication studies provide the theoretical basis for the typology of interactivity developed here. This typology outlines a continuum of interactivity. It provides a foundation for considering the way in which new media consumer input is being used in new media services advertising. This development is facilitated by the ‘conversational’ interactivity of new media such as the Internet and the mobile phone. Enabled by the flexibility of new media and communications networks, consumers can also now actively participate as producers of campaign materials. They can now be thought of as producers (Hartley 2004). Two case studies of recent successful advertising campaigns for mobile services are used as exemplars of the ways in which advertisers and agencies can actively seek out and make use of consumer creative input within an active campaign. Virgin Mobile Australia’s 2003 campaign for SMS services, which featured lovable loser ‘Warren’, is compared and contrasted with Hong Kong carrier CSL’s ‘Lovers’ campaigns of 2002 and 2003 for mobile data services.
The convergence of mobility and media. Mobile technology for the right reasons
Susanna Lewis, Jonas Selén and Jürgen Warnecke, ESOMAR, Telecoms Conference, Brussels, November 2004
Mobile Media is considered one of the key drivers for the future success of the telecom industry. Ericsson ConsumerLab and SKIM Analytical durables&ict have conducted a global study in order to add the consumer dimension in the design of Mobile Media offerings.
Mobile Media is considered one of the key drivers for the future success of the telecom industry. Ericsson ConsumerLab and SKIM Analytical durables&ict have conducted a global study in order to add the consumer dimension in the design of Mobile Media offerings. This paper describes both the study and the outcomes.
How do Japanese consumers perceive wireless ads? A multivariate analysis
Shintaro Okazaki, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 23, No. 4, 2004, pp. 429-454
This article explores the formation of Japanese mobile users’ attitudes to pull-type wireless advertising and their willingness to ‘click’ such ads.
This article explores the formation of Japanese mobile users’ attitudes to pull-type wireless advertising and their willingness to ‘click’ such ads. Both theoretical and practical considerations are used to develop a structural model, which is then tested using an empirical survey conducted in the greater Tokyo area. External search, content credibility and attitude towards ads are considered as antecedents of willingness to access. Attitude towards ads is conceptualised as a consequence of two psychological motives in wireless internet adoption: perceived infotainment and perceived irritation. The structural equation modelling indicates that all the paths are statistically significant, and provides strong empirical support for our basic propositions. A further analysis classifies the sample into three groups, i.e. e-newsletter subscribers, email users and voice users, according to their demographic data. The findings reveal that e-newsletter subscribers show the most positive perceptions on all the constructs, although the mean values of the total sample are well below an anchoring point. In addition, the principal characteristics of e-newsletter subscribers indicate that so-called ‘parasite singles’ (unmarried young females living with their parents, and with high disposable income) may be playing an important role in wireless internet adoption in Japan.
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