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Danny Murray and Laure Manuel, Market Research Society, Annual Conference, 2008
This paper presents a compelling example of how Durex used research, communication and design, as well as expert opinion, to transform a well established in-house PR vehicle into a critical business tool for brand and portfolio extension.
This paper presents a compelling example of how Durex used research, communication and design, as well as expert opinion, to transform a well established in-house PR vehicle into a critical business tool for brand and portfolio extension. The company identified the need to gain an in-depth understanding of sexual wellbeing - including what people thought about sex, and the role in played in their lives - on a global basis, in order to understand how to augment its current positioning and champion the its cause. It opted for an electronic survey, with some 26,000 participants taking part in 26 countries. The findings have influenced everything from brand strategy development to pack design and NPD, with the results of the survey itself also providing for extremely high levels of PR.
Beauty is in the eye of the beholder: public relations and multinational corporations
Xi Liu, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 25, No. 4, 2006, pp. 447-470
This study investigates the internal ideational foundation underlying the host country public relations of multinational corporations by explicating the thinking of various public relations actors about what counts as good public relations work.
This study investigates the internal ideational foundation underlying the host country public relations of multinational corporations by explicating the thinking of various public relations actors about what counts as good public relations work. It uses an abductive approach that combines theoretical deduction and qualitative induction. Data were collected through ethnographic fieldwork conducted in the subsidiary of an American multinational in China. Interpretation of the data reveals a global localism-informed orientation reflected in the views of expatriate managers, and a local pragmatism-rooted orientation in the perceptions of other public relations actors hired from the host country.
Examining Effects of Advertising Campaign Publicity in a Field Study
Hyun Seung Jin, Xinshu Zhao, and Soontae An, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 46, No. 2, June 2006, pp. 171-182
Previous experimental research found that the pre-exposure of publicity about advertisements has two distinct but related effects in advertised brand recall: (a) a facilitative effect on publicized brands and (b) an inhibitive effect on nonpublicized brands.
Previous experimental research found that the pre-exposure of publicity about advertisements has two distinct but related effects in advertised brand recall: (a) a facilitative effect on publicized brands and (b) an inhibitive effect on nonpublicized brands. We speculate that publicity effects exist beyond the controlled experiments. In this article, we used a field study to investigate the effects of publicity messages related to the commercials aired during three Super Bowl games. We found that publicity had a positive impact on the memory of subsequent advertisements for both recall and recognition, but publicity effects were more evident in recall than in recognition.
Sequence Matters: A More Effective Way to Use Advertising and Publicity
Marsha D. Loda and Barbara Carrick Coleman, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 45, No. 4, Dec 2005, pp. 362-372
The purpose of this research is twofold: (1) to examine the persuasive effects of a message that is presented either as advertising or publicity, and (2) to study whether sequencing (i.e., advertising-then-publicity or publicity-then-advertising) matters in integrated marketing.
The purpose of this research is twofold: (1) to examine the persuasive effects of a message that is presented either as advertising or publicity, and (2) to study whether sequencing (i.e., advertising-then-publicity or publicity-then-advertising) matters in integrated marketing. Specifically, this research tests (1) whether there is a difference between advertising and publicity on message acceptance and message response, and (2) whether the sequencing of publicity and advertising affects message processing. Four dependent variables are studied: message strength, perceived credibility, attitude toward the destination, and purchase intent. Results suggest that the sequence, publicity-then-advertising, is most effective at persuading potential customers to visit a tourist destination.
Perceptions of Integrated Marketing Communications: Chinese ad and PR agency perspective
Tao Li and Philip J Kitchen, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 24, No. 1, 2005, pp. 51-78
This paper reports a survey about diffusion of the concept of Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC) in the Chinese market, which is now in a transition period, moving from a planned economy to a market economy, and from what was a closed policy to an open-door policy.
This paper reports a survey about diffusion of the concept of Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC) in the Chinese market, which is now in a transition period, moving from a planned economy to a market economy, and from what was a closed policy to an open-door policy. The survey was conducted among 60 advertising agencies and 23 public relations agencies in Beijing to explore perceptions of IMC, to examine how agencies coordinate and evaluate IMC, and to identify any barriers that have hindered or will possibly impede progress in developing IMC of the Chinese market. This exploratory study concludes that the concept of IMC has been accepted by most advertising and public relations practitioners, at least in Beijing, although the concept of IMC has diffused more widely in China. Agency respondents view IMC as a strategic business process and as an opportunity to coordinate the various communication disciplines. The majority of respondents believe that it is necessary to promote IMC in China and it seems to be viable under the current market economic context. However, many respondents also agree that it may take a long time for the concept to be widely practised in local companies. Analysis of the survey’s open-ended questions reveals a number of perceived barriers to the further development of IMC in the Chinese market. Finally, implications for the practice and theory of IMC are provided.
Extending the communication process: the Significance of personal influencers in UK motor markets
C Fill and M Evans, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 19, No. 3, 2000
An investigation of how public relations (PR) works by influencing opinion leaders and opinion formers.
An investigation of how public relations (PR) works by influencing opinion leaders and opinion formers. The model proposed is 'multi-step flows of communication': it is studied in the motor market, which is known to have high levels of PR activity. The proposition is that motor companies target journalists through press releases, `events' and other personal presentations, because they are seen as opinion formers capable of significant influence within multi-step communication flows. Opinion leaders (consumers whose views are respected) would be influenced by the opinion formers, and in turn influence their `followers'. The research explores: the relationship between motor PR, opinion formers and opinion leaders; the use of press releases and events; the degree of objectivity that can be attributed to the messages conveyed through this influencing process; and methods of measurement and evaluation of PR through the multi-step flow model. Support for the model is found.
Key business dilemmas and the marketing remit in business-to-business marketing services
L Simkin and S Dibb, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 17, No. 3, 1998
Reports on various surveys by the authors, including a major survey in 1997, into the use of marketing techniques by those who provide marketing services to businesses, in particular advertising, public relations and management consultancy.
Reports on various surveys by the authors, including a major survey in 1997, into the use of marketing techniques by those who provide marketing services to businesses, in particular advertising, public relations and management consultancy. Results were drawn from over 200 leading advertising and PR businesses and over 40 strategic marketing consultancies. Survey findings are summarised for each of the three areas. The core underlying business trends and key resulting marketing issues are explored for each type of business. A number of trends and issues (listed) are common to all three. The discussion then examines how these businesses themselves have utilised marketing methods, comparing current practices against the `textbook' view of good marketing behaviour. The understanding and use of marketing differ significantly; the leading management consultancies and a few of the larger, international agencies are ahead of the rest; but all agree that they need to improve their own strategic and tactical marketing practices.
The Car, The Environment and the Media. An Analysis of Press Coverage on Environmental Issues Affecting the European Motor Industry
ESOMAR, Automotive Marketing, Lausanne, March 1998
The paper outlines a research project examining press coverage of the motor industry in six European markets in order to track the incidence of a range of environmental issues and the presence of certain key messages both for and against the industry.
The paper outlines a research project examining press coverage of the motor industry in six European markets in order to track the incidence of a range of environmental issues and the presence of certain key messages both for and against the industry. The project quantifies press coverage of a wide range of issues including manufacturing and fuel technology; pollution, congestion and environmental concerns; consumer benefits and concerns; and pressure exerted on the motor industry from governments and non-governmental organisations (NGOs). It also provides a measure of the favourability of press coverage to the European motor industry. The research suggests that Japan and the United States still hold industry leadership on environmental matters and that European motor manufacturers respond more to legislation and pressure-group action than consumer demand. It concludes that manufacturers should move from responding to environmental pressures purely on a technological and design basis but should seek to establish mutually beneficial partnerships with special interest groups on transport and travel policy.
Research for public relations and communication strategy. A unique experience in health reform perceptual measurement in Turkey
Hamza Zeytinoglu and Selim Oktar, ESOMAR, Marketing Research, Edinburgh, September 1997
This paper describes and illustrates the role of perceptual measurement in the development and implementation of healthcare reform by the Ministry of Health of Turkey.
This paper describes and illustrates the role of perceptual measurement in the development and implementation of healthcare reform by the Ministry of Health of Turkey. A multi-stage program that collects information from stakeholders such as health personnel and the public helped both the reform design and the planning necessary for implementation. In the future, perceptual information will be used to support continuous development and improvement. This measurement program provides a model for countries facing the task of healthcare reform. Use of perceptual information plays a major role in decisions that ultimately determine both effectiveness of programs and efficient use of scarce resources.
Information and public relations management. Role of market research within this growth sector
Philip Maschke and Kristian Rikard-Peteren, ESOMAR, Business-to-Business Marketing, Vienna, April 1997
The public relations/information sector is of growing interest to market researchers, especially those who work with business-to-business research.
The public relations/information sector is of growing interest to market researchers, especially those who work with business-to-business research. The future holds some great challenges for us. If we want to make ourselves more visible and ensure that our new customers look upon us as someone who is different and unique vis-à-vis management consultants and other actors on the business consultancy scene, we will have to adapt to new challenges and new ways of working. The present paper emphasises the business-to-business aspect and more precisely adds light on the work and needs of the information departments in large Danish companies and organisations. The information departments both in enterprises and organisations are rapidly growing and their role is changing rapidly from providing in-house magazines and press releases to being an integrated part of the overall strategy of the enterprises. Therefore their needs for external services, including market research, are both growing and changing as far as their focus is concerned. The opportunities of the market research sector are to be found in the professional expertise the sector can offer, its ability to be able to tackle complex analytical problems and, in particular, in the expertise we can offer to the clients in a dialogue with them. Knowledge and the handling of knowledge become the code words. However, knowledge should be based on realities and the handling of knowledge is an area in which we as professional market analysts should have all the advantages, through our work with different lines of business and methodologies.
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