or call us: +1 202 778 0680
Content & Partners
What Our Clients Say
Warc in the News
Write for Warc
Terms & Conditions
Request a Trial
Magazines & Journals
Books & Reports
Do I Subscribe?
ALL OF WARC
Pinpoint the case evidence you need – search by industry, objective, media and more.
Case summaries showcasing leading brands achieving key marketing objectives.
Creative TV and video executions from the most innovative and market-leading brands.
Browse campaigns from the world's leading advertising and marketing effectiveness awards.
The latest from our annual case study competitions.
Rankings of the world's most effective agencies, advertisers and brands.
The latest on 80+ key topics
Media & Channels
Latest industry-focused insights
Apparel & Accessories
Government & Non-profit
Household & Domestic
Media & Entertainment
Pharmaceutical & Health
Toiletries & Cosmetics
Travel & Tourism
Marketing advice and assistance
In-depth analysis of 200 global brand owners
Key Warc papers on marketing best practice
Quick one-stop overviews of major marketing themes
Browse all Warc papers and case studies by subject
Latest reports from Warc and trusted partners offering unique insights into current trends.
The driving forces behind consumer behaviour.
New developments for industries and sectors.
Strategic insight for the marketing of brands.
Media & Tech
Latest innovations in media and technology.
Insight and intelligence for countries and regions.
Daily coverage of key developments for marketers worldwide.
The Warc Blog
Insights, opinions and fresh new thinking from our team of bloggers around the world.
Advertising expenditure by medium in 80 markets, plus forecasts and media costs for key countries.
Key briefings from major conferences and events in the US, Europe and Asia Pacific.
Plan your schedule of must-attend events with our global calendar of conferences.
Review your contact details and public profile.
Choose and review which topics to follow.
Choose and review which brands to follow.
Your Email Updates
Select and manage the emails you receive.
Contact your dedicated Client Services Manager.
Put our research team at your service.
REFINE YOUR RESULTS BY:
Enter a search term:
Media and publishing
Leisure and entertainment
Drink and beverage
Utilities and services
Journal of Advertising Research
ESOMAR Conference papers
Int. Journal of Advertising
Date: newest first
Date: oldest first
The Secret Sauce for Super Bowl Advertising: What Makes Marketing Work in the World's Most Watched Event?
Jin-Woo Kim, Traci H. Freling, and Douglas B. Grisaffe, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 53, No. 2, 2013, pp. 134-149
This study investigated the relationship between Super Bowl advertising and advertisers’ market valuation, identifying several factors that influence the financial rewards of this media-placement strategy.
This study investigated the relationship between Super Bowl advertising and advertisers’ market valuation, identifying several factors that influence the financial rewards of this media-placement strategy. Specifically, the authors examined the impact of each commercial’s featured characters and appeals—and the product benefits promoted—on abnormal stock returns for sponsoring companies that appear in Super Bowl advertising. Event study results showed that Super Bowl advertising is positively related to abnormal stock returns for advertisers. Cross-sectional regression analyses also indicated that market value of Super Bowl advertisers is positively related to likeable characters, emotional appeals, and approach messaging. The combined use of likeable characters with either emotional appeals or approach messages also is positively associated with firm valuation.
Maximizing the Online Video Viewer and Advertiser Experience
Cortney Henseler and Joe Blechman, ARF Experiential Learning, Audience Measurement 8.0, 2013
This study by AOL, the US internet service provider, investigates how to optimize online video. It looks specifically at short versus long form videos to understand consumers' perceptions of these formats and the advertising within them.
This study by AOL, the US internet service provider, investigates how to optimize online video. It looks specifically at short versus long form videos to understand consumers' perceptions of these formats and the advertising within them. Ad effectiveness and creative implications for advertisers in these environments are explored. The study also examines the advertising and content mix required to optimise the online ad options for a variety of different online videos. Total ad time, optimal placement, length of spots and creative concepts are discussed. Combined, the insights from this research set the standard for optimising video and ad content based on consumer insights. The findings provide direction to advertisers on how to effectively communicate to consumers within online video environments.
TV scheduling in context
John Clifton and Charles Young, Admap, May 2013, pp. 40-41
This article demonstrates how television commercials can be put into different customised programming contexts to improve ad performance.
This article demonstrates how television commercials can be put into different customised programming contexts to improve ad performance. To determine this, Turner Networks, the cable television owner, commissioned a large-scale study of 10,000 consumers' in-depth responses to over two dozen commercials. The research found that one of the ways contextual programming can work is by priming the audience to be more receptive to an advertising message, which can turbocharge commercial breakthrough power. Another dimension that determines in-market ad effectiveness is motivation, which is improved by the congruence between the programme content and the commercial execution. Congruence can occur in four areas: a sense of place and the semantic, episodic and procedural memory systems. Examples of how these principles can be applied to TV scheduling are included.
Judging a Magazine by Its Advertising: Exploring the Effects of Advertising Content on Perceptions of a Media Vehicle
Sara Rosengren and Micael Dahlén, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 53, No. 1, 2013, pp. 61-70
This article explores how changes in advertising content can lead to different perceptions of a media vehicle.
This article explores how changes in advertising content can lead to different perceptions of a media vehicle. In two experimental studies, the advertising content of a magazine is manipulated in terms of being high-end-versus-low-end, for high-versus-low reputation brands, and high-versus-low execution quality. The results show how the advertising content can be either beneficial or detrimental for magazine perceptions. By looking at the influence of advertising content—rather than advertising quantity—the studies complement advertising-clutter research and point to different ways in which media owners can manage their advertising content.
Is a website known by the banner ads it hosts? Assessing forward and reciprocal spillover effects of banner ads and host websites
Sweta Chaturvedi Thota, Ji Hee Song and Abhijit Biswas, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 31, No. 4, 2012, pp. 877-905
While marketers often rely upon banner ads to generate revenues, it is unclear as to how these ads might influence consumer perceptions of host websites.
While marketers often rely upon banner ads to generate revenues, it is unclear as to how these ads might influence consumer perceptions of host websites. In this paper, we conduct three studies to examine the effect of animation and brand advertised in a banner ad on consumers’ attitude towards a host website, as well as word-of-mouth behaviour. Results of the first study reveal that consumers are irritated with unfavourable banner brands and that irritation, in turn, negatively affects their attitude towards the host website. We demonstrate that banner brand and banner type serve as contextual cues that influence judgements of the host website due to a forward spillover effect. Findings of the second study demonstrate that a host website, corollarily, serves as a context to negatively influence evaluations of favourable brands mainly for animated banner ads – a reciprocal spillover effect. The third study validates and extends the findings of the first study by adopting methodological pluralism through a different approach to stimuli selection and experimental manipulation. Results indicate that, while presence of animation has a negative influence on the host site and WOM behaviour when the brand advertised is an unfavourable one, it neither benefits nor hurts a host website evaluation and WOM behaviour when a favourable brand is advertised. Managerial implications of our findings are also discussed.
Celebrity endorsement: To celeb or not to celeb?
Hamish Pringle, Admap, September 2012, pp. 20-22
While the use of celebrity in ads is impactful, research has shown that it is also a little less persuasive.
While the use of celebrity in ads is impactful, research has shown that it is also a little less persuasive. There are certain markets, such as financial services, where stars fail to make an impact and there are markets in which the advertising codes make it impossible to use celebrities, such as alcoholic drinks. But having decided that using a celebrity is an appropriate and strategic route, the brand owner should be aware that there are six main ways to use a star. The advertising testimonial is the most well-known but also the most expensive and most difficult to get right. This article also explores the other five options, including using celebrity sponsorships and leveraging celebrity owners, and examines the main challenges brands face when using such strategies.
Online advertising and congruency effects: it depends on how you look at it
Wim Janssens, Patrick De Pelsmacker and Maggie Geuens, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 31, No. 3, 2012, pp. 579-604
Three studies investigate the moderating role of divided attention in the relationship between thematic (in)congruency between a web page and a web ad, and evaluations of and click intention towards the embedded web ad.
Three studies investigate the moderating role of divided attention in the relationship between thematic (in)congruency between a web page and a web ad, and evaluations of and click intention towards the embedded web ad. The first study establishes the traditional priming effect in sequential web page – web ad exposure. Study two manipulates viewers’ opportunity to divide their attention when simultaneously exposed to a web page and a web ad, and Study three measures divided attention by means of gaze jumps in a simultaneous exposure situation. In the case of simultaneous exposure to a web page and a web ad, a congruency effect occurs when there is little opportunity to divide the attention between the web page and the ad, and when there are few gaze jumps between the web page and the web ad. In these cases, web ads that are thematically congruent with the web page result in more positive responses. This effect reverses when there is more opportunity to divide the attention between the web page and the web ad, and when the number of gaze jumps is high: web ads incongruent with the web page lead to more positive responses. Undivided attention benefits web ads that are congruent with the web page in which they are embedded, but divided attention benefits those that are incongruent with the web page.
Lowdown: Native advertising
Rob Meldrum, Admap, July/August 2012, pp. 8-8
Native advertising, in its simplest form, can be described as 'an advertising unit designed to integrate seamlessly with a user's consumption experience'.
Native advertising, in its simplest form, can be described as 'an advertising unit designed to integrate seamlessly with a user's consumption experience'. The recent buzz around native advertising within digital can be traced to the decline in banner advertising but marketers are looking to spend digital budgets elsewhere. There is no standard digital platform, so the social networks and large digital players, such as YouTube and StumbleUpon are leading the way by creating their own.
The overlooked power of media: Enhancing the memorability of communications
James Galpin, Millward Brown Points of View, June 2012
Relevance, difference, emotional impact, recency and frequency are the general characteristics of advertising that people readily remember.
Relevance, difference, emotional impact, recency and frequency are the general characteristics of advertising that people readily remember. While it is usually believed that media delivery is responsible for recency and frequency, the media vehicle can also shape the way people respond to the message itself. Relevance can be delivered through media by reaching the right people at the right time. Difference can be achieved through using a media channel that is unusual for the brand's category or through sponsoring specific and distinctive vehicles. Media can also help deliver emotion through transference from associated content, or even via the channels themselves, which consumers may have unconsciously linked to particular qualities.
The Fit Factor: New frontiers for contextual relevance in television advertising
Pranav Yadav and Dave Kaplan, ARF Experiential Learning, Re:think conference, 2012
In this paper, Neuro-Insight and Bravo present results from a major neuromarketing study on the impact of contextual television advertising.
In this paper, Neuro-Insight and Bravo present results from a major neuromarketing study on the impact of contextual television advertising. The research indicates that a media/creative fit of several types can be successfully utilized to increase memory encoding for TV commercials. In particular, hybrid ads (which incorporate talent or other show elements with an advertiser's brand message) achieve the highest levels of effectiveness of all formats tested. Additionally, the research suggests that neo-contextual matches based on aligning thematic qualities of the creative with a program can outperform standard matches based on product category, and may be an under-invested portion of the market. Expanding opportunities for contextual relevance is suggested as one approach to mitigate the challenges posed by increased fragmentation and ad avoidance.
YOU ARE IN THE WARC INDEX:
Planning and buying
Editorial context and position of advertising
Planning and buying
Channel planning, media mix selection
Continuity bursts and flighting
Coverage, frequency and recency
Electronic media trading
Integrated media planning
Media agencies and consultants
Media auditing and accountability
Media behaviour and response effects
Media measurement and effectiveness
Media planning trends
Media schedule evaluation and optimisers
Planning media budgets
Scheduling mixed media
Theories and ideas of media planning
TV advertising breaks and clutter
TV spot lengths and position
, your search results have been restricted to items that contain .
To search for
without automatic phrasing
(this will find items containing all the words in your search term, but not only as a phrase).
If you want to search for other exact phrases, simply put your terms in quotes. There is more about search on the
Our Content & Partners
Terms & Conditions
© 2013 Copyright and Database Rights owned by Warc