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Consumers’ attitudes toward unsolicited commercial e-mail and postal direct mail marketing methods: intrusiveness, perceived loss of control, and irritation
Mariko Morimoto and Susan Chang, The Journal of Interactive Advertising, Vol. 7, No. 1, Fall 2006
Using Psychological Reactance as the framework, this study sought to understand consumer attitudes towards two major direct marketing techniques: unsolicited commercial e-mail and postal direct mail.
Using Psychological Reactance as the framework, this study sought to understand consumer attitudes towards two major direct marketing techniques: unsolicited commercial e-mail and postal direct mail. In particular, audience perceptions of advertising intrusiveness, perceived loss of control (as conceptualized by Psychological Reactance), and irritation regarding the direct marketing techniques were investigated. The results of this survey study (N=119) indicated that recipients perceived unsolicited e-mails as more intrusive and irritating than postal direct mail. This study contributed to the theory of Psychological Reactance by indicating that recipients did not feel a loss of control regarding spam, thus Psychological Reactance was not fully supported in the context of these marketing communication techniques. Suggestions for direct marketing practitioners conclude the paper.
Low response and purchase rates in the automotive industry. Dealing with typical problems in direct marketing campaigns
Johannes Ruhland and Wendy Gersten, ESOMAR, Automotive Conference, Lausanne, March 2004
Based on a survey among 22 direct marketing experts and in-depth project experiences within automotive industry, the authors identify two key issues: first, when the success of direct marketing campaigns should be measured; and second, when the results of a campaign should be used for selecting the target group for a new campaign.
Based on a survey among 22 direct marketing experts and in-depth project experiences within automotive industry, the authors identify two key issues: first, when the success of direct marketing campaigns should be measured; and second, when the results of a campaign should be used for selecting the target group for a new campaign. As a solution to the latter, i.e. too few cases for learning a stable and accurate scoring model, we propose the semi-supervised modeling approach when selecting learning cases: an initial classifier is learned on the ideal participants from a previous campaign. This classifier is employed to select supplementary cases. This is a research technique that has been applied in other domains for several years, but thus far not in (direct) marketing.
Can recipients of sales flyers be segmented?
Mogens Bjerre and Marcus Schmidt, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 22, No. 3, 2003, pp. 375-392
This paper investigates the possibility of identifying clusters among consumers receiving sales flyers from retailers (supermarkets, etc.).
This paper investigates the possibility of identifying clusters among consumers receiving sales flyers from retailers (supermarkets, etc.). First, flyers are defined and then consumers' perception of flyers is analysed, based on a representative panel. According to the analysis, three clusters are identified. The clusters possess quite different characteristics - not just in relation to their perceptions and attitudes towards flyers, but also when looking at demographic characteristics.
The contribution of direct mail advertising to average weekly unit sales
C. Todd Sherron, Eric M. Lippold and Marla Royne Stafford, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 43, No. 2, June 2003, pp. 173-179
This article examines the contribution of direct mail advertising to average weekly unit sales of a national fast food franchisee.
This article examines the contribution of direct mail advertising to average weekly unit sales of a national fast food franchisee. Two different types of direct mail advertising are used, both independently and in conjunction with local and national advertising. Results of a field study indicate that one type of direct mail (a shopper) contributes significantly to sales when used independently. When combined with national or local advertising, however, the contribution level of this shopper decreases. Conversely, a direct mail insert combined with many others inserts into one single envelope is much more powerful when utilized in conjunction with national advertising. In fact, results show that this latter combination of direct mail with national advertising contributes more to average weekly unit sales than any other combination. Implications are offered and future research is suggested.
Generating Scoring Models with Auxilary Target Variables and Data Bridging
Johannes Ruthland and Wendy Gersten, ESOMAR, Consumer insights conference, Madrid, April 2003
The authors present an innovative way to deal with a frequent practical problem in CRM and direct marketing projects: the lack of cases with known target behavior.
The authors present an innovative way to deal with a frequent practical problem in CRM and direct marketing projects: the lack of cases with known target behavior. Usually, this makes learning scoring models that can be utilized for selecting the target group of a new campaign infeasible. The approach presented resorts to auxiliary target variables whose nature is derived through analogous induction and whose similarity can be calculated by using odds ratio and Euclidian distance. We will illustrate how the methodology works on a practical example taken from the automotive industry.
Optimising the effect of hybrid marketing campaigns
Meta Menkveld and Jeroen Rietberg, ESOMAR, Online Audience Conference, Cannes, June 2002
The Internet makes it easier to break target groups down to the level of 'one to one' marketing. Although this marketing dream is definitively a technical possibility, in practice it appears to be very difficult.
The Internet makes it easier to break target groups down to the level of 'one to one' marketing. Although this marketing dream is definitively a technical possibility, in practice it appears to be very difficult. People do not like to be approached uninvited via e-mail and the effect of commercial e-mail campaigns is unclear, however well targeted they might be. It is in this context that TPG Post, the Dutch-based (international) postal services company, decided to develop the E-mail Monitor in cooperation with Pro Active International. As the focus of this paper is on consumer behaviour, the authors have targeted the first stage of the E-mail Monitor, which is used to determine what combination of mail and e-mail can best be used to achieve the desired effect.
Segmenting Consumers, Based on Their Perceptions for Circulars
Mogens Bjerre and Marcus Schmidt, Forum for Advertising Research, May 2001
In this article we investigate the possibility of identifying clusters, as a possible base for segmentation among consumers receiving circulars.
In this article we investigate the possibility of identifying clusters, as a possible base for segmentation among consumers receiving circulars. Initially we define circulars and use this definition to analyze a representative panel of consumers’ perceptions of circulars. Based on this analysis we found three clusters possessing quite different characteristics – not just in relation to their perceptions and attitudes towards circulars, but also when using socio demographic characteristics.
The Truth About the Quality of Online Survey Data
Boaz Mourad, ESOMAR, Internet Conference, Dublin, April 2000
This paper examines the extent to which research findings from on-line surveys can be used to generalize to the online population or general public.
This paper examines the extent to which research findings from on-line surveys can be used to generalize to the online population or general public. It is demonstrated that online panels are typically not conducted with a representative sample of respondents, even though recent tests have demonstrated that the results of such studies are quite accurate. Thus, while such studies do not have statistical validity, they often have pragmatic functions for marketers and decision-makers. An alternative online methodology is discussed which does provide a representative sample and can be generalized to the population as a whole.
The Hidden Sex Life of the Male and Female Shot
M Evans, A Nairn and A Maltby, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 19, No. 1, 2000
This paper does not deal with sexist marketing communications. Neither does it explore gender-stereotyped imagery in promotional messages.
This paper does not deal with sexist marketing communications. Neither does it explore gender-stereotyped imagery in promotional messages. Such dimensions are mostly concerned with how men and women are portrayed in advertising, based on perceptions of how the socialisation process influences gender roles. Instead, the focus is on information-processing style and the context is direct mail. Do women and men process information differently, as a result of their neurobiological development and, if so, should direct marketers target them on this basis? This paper reports on the qualitative phase of a major industry-funded research programme. Overall it was found that men and women react differently to certain features of written communication. Women respond well to bright colours, photographs and images and men respond well to bold headlines, bullet points and graphs. The paper suggests how the industry might incorporate the findings which could have far-reaching implications for direct mailings.
Consumer Direct Mail - Just How Effective Is It?
Nick Francis and Fiona Bell, ESOMAR, Sponsorship and Promotion, Madrid, March 1995
This paper sets out to demonstrate the effectiveness of consumer direct mail in Great Britain, illustrated by ist rapid growth rate and increasing share of advertising expenditure.
This paper sets out to demonstrate the effectiveness of consumer direct mail in Great Britain, illustrated by ist rapid growth rate and increasing share of advertising expenditure. The importance of direct mail, both now and as an advertising medium of the future, has been influenced by better targeting through individual lifestyle analysis. It also meets the demands of the marketer of the nineties, being very cost-efficient, flexible and more measurable that other forms of media.
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