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More Mutter About Clutter: Extending Empirical Generalizations to Facebook
Karen Nelson-Field, Erica Riebe, and Byron Sharp, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 53, No. 2, 2013, pp. 186-191
This article examines the impact of clutter on advertising placed on Facebook. This platform is quite different from broadcast media, yet the current study unveiled very similar findings as previously seen for television and radio—that advertisements were better recalled when placed among fewer other advertisements.
This article examines the impact of clutter on advertising placed on Facebook. This platform is quite different from broadcast media, yet the current study unveiled very similar findings as previously seen for television and radio—that advertisements were better recalled when placed among fewer other advertisements. The improvements in advertising recall, however, do not appear to be sufficient to justify the likely price premium that advertisers would have to pay to reduce clutter on Facebook. The research found that larger brands are more immune to clutter than small brands, so low-clutter environments are more important for lesser-known (i.e., smaller and new) brands.
If an Advertisement Runs Online and No One Sees It, Is It Still an Ad? Empirical Generalizations in Digital Advertising
Stephanie Flosi, Gian Fulgoni, and Andrea Vollman, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 53, No. 2, 2013, pp. 192-199
This study presents findings from three charter studies involving leading global advertisers in three key geographical regions: the United States, Europe, and Canada.
This study presents findings from three charter studies involving leading global advertisers in three key geographical regions: the United States, Europe, and Canada. The goal of the research was to identify and better understand the incidence of sub-optimal digital campaign delivery as it pertains to viewability, audience delivery, geographic targeting, and brand safety. Through an evaluation of the study findings, several significant empirical generalizations emerged, and this article highlights these generalizations and discusses their implications for the digital advertising ecosystem.
In search of digital ROI: Best practices for including digital data in marketing mix modeling
Eric Schmidt, ARF Experiential Learning, Re:Think conference, 2013
This paper examines the challenges of including digital data in marketing mix models and suggests some best practices for determining its sales impact and ROI.
This paper examines the challenges of including digital data in marketing mix models and suggests some best practices for determining its sales impact and ROI. To better understand how to make mix decisions, it considers the unique difficulties in measuring three digital media types - online display, search (paid), and social word-of-mouth (buzz). Once the metrics have been determined, they must be combined with other sales drivers in a sales response modeling framework. Results are developed in a consistent framework with 'traditional' media to allow resource allocation decisions across the entire mix.
How banner ads can be effective: investigating the influences of exposure duration and banner ad complexity
Kai-Yu Wang, Eric Shih and Laura A. Peracchio, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 32, No. 1, 2013, pp. 121-141
This research examines the impacts of exposure duration and banner ad complexity on advertising persuasion in a web advertising environment.
This research examines the impacts of exposure duration and banner ad complexity on advertising persuasion in a web advertising environment. Processing fluency is used to explain the underlying process that occurs among consumers during exposure to advertisements, and refers to the ease of stimulus encoding and processing that is facilitated by prior exposure to a banner ad. Based on previous studies (e.g. Reber et al. 1998), this research used a priming phase and a testing phase, in which respondents viewed two banner ads for the same brand. A banner ad presented in the priming phase facilitates viewer processing of a target banner ad in the testing phase due to processing fluency. The findings show that, when a banner ad is difficult to process in the priming phase, increasing the duration of exposure to the ad in the priming phase causes a linear increase in respondent attitudes towards the target ad and brand in the testing phase. When the priming banner ad is moderately difficult to process, increasing the exposure duration in the priming phase first increases, and then decreases, respondent attitudes towards the target ad and brand (an inverted-U pattern) in the testing phase. When the priming banner ad is easy to process, increasing the exposure duration in the priming phase first decreases, and then increases, respondent attitudes towards the target ad and brand (a U pattern) in the testing phase.
The Role of Visual Attention in Internet Advertising: Eleven Questions and a Score of Answers
Adam S. Greenberg, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 52, No. 4, 2012, pp. 400-404
In this article, the cognitive neuroscientist, Adam Greenberg, provides answers to a series of questions on consumers' attention to digital marketing, based on his analysis of a large dataset provided to him by the Advertising Research Foundation.
In this article, the cognitive neuroscientist, Adam Greenberg, provides answers to a series of questions on consumers' attention to digital marketing, based on his analysis of a large dataset provided to him by the Advertising Research Foundation. Greenberg had no experience of advertising research prior to the exercise, but was selected to provide a fresh perspective given his extensive work in the general field of human attention and cognition (and particularly about how humans control their behavior in response to a visual stimulus and the brain mechanisms this involves). Some of the 11 issues discussed include: How does design affect consumers' engagement with an advertisement? Is clutter a distraction? What is the impact of page placement on attention? Are clicks a good measure of attention? What are the best practices for display advertising?
Is a website known by the banner ads it hosts? Assessing forward and reciprocal spillover effects of banner ads and host websites
Sweta Chaturvedi Thota, Ji Hee Song and Abhijit Biswas, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 31, No. 4, 2012, pp. 877-905
While marketers often rely upon banner ads to generate revenues, it is unclear as to how these ads might influence consumer perceptions of host websites.
While marketers often rely upon banner ads to generate revenues, it is unclear as to how these ads might influence consumer perceptions of host websites. In this paper, we conduct three studies to examine the effect of animation and brand advertised in a banner ad on consumers’ attitude towards a host website, as well as word-of-mouth behaviour. Results of the first study reveal that consumers are irritated with unfavourable banner brands and that irritation, in turn, negatively affects their attitude towards the host website. We demonstrate that banner brand and banner type serve as contextual cues that influence judgements of the host website due to a forward spillover effect. Findings of the second study demonstrate that a host website, corollarily, serves as a context to negatively influence evaluations of favourable brands mainly for animated banner ads – a reciprocal spillover effect. The third study validates and extends the findings of the first study by adopting methodological pluralism through a different approach to stimuli selection and experimental manipulation. Results indicate that, while presence of animation has a negative influence on the host site and WOM behaviour when the brand advertised is an unfavourable one, it neither benefits nor hurts a host website evaluation and WOM behaviour when a favourable brand is advertised. Managerial implications of our findings are also discussed.
Online advertising and congruency effects: it depends on how you look at it
Wim Janssens, Patrick De Pelsmacker and Maggie Geuens, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 31, No. 3, 2012, pp. 579-604
Three studies investigate the moderating role of divided attention in the relationship between thematic (in)congruency between a web page and a web ad, and evaluations of and click intention towards the embedded web ad.
Three studies investigate the moderating role of divided attention in the relationship between thematic (in)congruency between a web page and a web ad, and evaluations of and click intention towards the embedded web ad. The first study establishes the traditional priming effect in sequential web page – web ad exposure. Study two manipulates viewers’ opportunity to divide their attention when simultaneously exposed to a web page and a web ad, and Study three measures divided attention by means of gaze jumps in a simultaneous exposure situation. In the case of simultaneous exposure to a web page and a web ad, a congruency effect occurs when there is little opportunity to divide the attention between the web page and the ad, and when there are few gaze jumps between the web page and the web ad. In these cases, web ads that are thematically congruent with the web page result in more positive responses. This effect reverses when there is more opportunity to divide the attention between the web page and the web ad, and when the number of gaze jumps is high: web ads incongruent with the web page lead to more positive responses. Undivided attention benefits web ads that are congruent with the web page in which they are embedded, but divided attention benefits those that are incongruent with the web page.
How Validation Can Trump Digital Waste and Generate Value across the Digital Advertising Ecosystem
Linda Boland Abraham, Anne Hunter and Andrea Vollman, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 52, No. 2, 2012, pp. 180-195
The research demonstrates the impact of measuring “validated” ad impressions as opposed to simply counting ads that are delivered to a computer as has historically been done in online advertising measurement.
The research demonstrates the impact of measuring “validated” ad impressions as opposed to simply counting ads that are delivered to a computer as has historically been done in online advertising measurement. “Validation” holistically measures the visibility of ads by consumers as well as the geographic accuracy, brand safety, and legitimacy of the ad delivery. Based on eighteen campaigns from twelve major brand advertisers, including Kellogg’s, General Mills, Ford, Sprint, and more, the study found that there is a significant difference between gross and validated delivery, representing a substantial optimization opportunity for both buyers and sellers of digital advertising.
Letting users skip: Quantifying the relative effectiveness of skippable and non-skippable video ads on YouTube
Max Pashkevich, Sundar Dorai-Raj and Dan Zigmond, ARF Experiential Learning, Audience Measurement 7.0, 2012
In 2010, YouTube introduced TrueView in-stream ads which allow users to skip directly to the desired content after 5 seconds of viewing.
In 2010, YouTube introduced TrueView in-stream ads which allow users to skip directly to the desired content after 5 seconds of viewing. This paper from Google, the owner of YouTube, compares the effectiveness of skippable in-stream ads to non-skippable ones. The paper claims that skippable video ads may be just as effective per-impression as non-skippable ads. Given viewers' preference for skippable ads, it is suggested that by implementing such ads YouTube can improve the online video viewing experience for users without sacrificing advertising value. The authors also argue that giving the user the choice to view the ad or not may increase effectiveness as it serves to engage users in the process.
What makes sponsorships persuasive? Creative best practices for branded or sponsored microsites
Sylvia Barney, Leah Spalding and Alina Bekkerman, ARF Experiential Learning, Audience Measurement 7.0, 2012
This paper outlines how Microsoft Advertising sought to identify which elements of online sponsorships are linked to strong in-market performance, by using Millward Brown Digital's 'MarketNorms' database.
This paper outlines how Microsoft Advertising sought to identify which elements of online sponsorships are linked to strong in-market performance, by using Millward Brown Digital's 'MarketNorms' database. The analysis revealed that online sponsorships have a more positive branding effect compared to a typical digital campaign. Specifically, successful online sponsorships are likely to include both interactive and non-interactive elements and have the strongest impact when they are contextually relevant. The analysis also claims online sponsorships that use celebrity spokespeople or co-branding are more likely to struggle in-market. The paper also outlines the impact of online sponsorships in the automotive and CPG market, claiming automotive sponsorships tend to be twice as persuasive as the typical digital automotive campaign and CPG sponsorships are incrementally stronger than typical CPG campaigns. The paper also provides a summary of creative elements in online sponsorships that have the most impact in meeting specific branding goals, such as online ad awareness and brand favourability.
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