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The Power of Reach and Frequency In the Age of Digital Advertising: Offline and Online Media Demand Different Metrics
Yunjae Cheong, Federico de Gregorio and Kihan Kim, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 50, No. 4, 2010
A survey was conducted of 104 U.S. advertising-agency media directors regarding current practices in media-schedule evaluations—for both offline and online media—and the application and perceptions of reach-and-frequency estimation models.
A survey was conducted of 104 U.S. advertising-agency media directors regarding current practices in media-schedule evaluations—for both offline and online media—and the application and perceptions of reach-and-frequency estimation models. Results suggest that traditional exposure-based criteria such as reach-and-frequency distribution remain important and often are used in evaluations of offline media schedules. For online media, however, a majority of agencies rely on qualitative assessments followed by cost-based criteria or Internet-specific measures (page views). The findings also indicate decreased levels of satisfaction with computerized reach-and-frequency estimation models compared to media directors in the mid-1990s. The authors urge continuous validation of model accuracy and development of new reach-and-frequency estimation models.
Reach, Medienreichweite, Cobertura or Couverture? A view of OOH methodologies across countries
Daniel Cuende, ESOMAR, WM3, Berlin, October 2010
New winds are blowing with the sound of bits and chips, making irreversible and deep changes in the media, from content to audience measurement.
New winds are blowing with the sound of bits and chips, making irreversible and deep changes in the media, from content to audience measurement. Until this point, most audience measurement systems have not kept pace with such changes. However, Out of Home is another story. “Digital” is contributing to make Outdoor into something stronger, flexible and fast (soon even cheaper). It helps plan in timeframes, dayparts, local content. New audience measurements provide accurate information for users/advertisers/buyers in OoH even in this new digital stage.
What Online Behavior Reveals About Digital Culture: Identifying Themes and Interpreting Them For Insight
Christian Kugel and Ellen Bird, ESOMAR, Congress Odyssey, Athens, September 2010
Digital culture has an increasingly visible impact on culture in general. Despite this, no vetted process exists for understanding digital culture or applying it to the development of marketing assets.
Digital culture has an increasingly visible impact on culture in general. Despite this, no vetted process exists for understanding digital culture or applying it to the development of marketing assets. For the past two years, the authors experimented with different techniques – social media monitoring, crowdsourcing and ethnographic methods – to answer the question "How do we best uncover digital-culture insights?" This presentation describes the results of this initiative (based on the analysis of over 6,000 pieces of digital content), and the process of interpretation.
Consumer-generated versus marketer-generated websites in consumer decision making
Fred Bronner and Robert de Hoog, International Journal of Market Research, Vol. 52, No. 2, 2010, pp. 231-248
Internet users are encouraged to rate and review all kinds of services and products. These kinds of reviews are described as eWOM (electronic word-of-mouth).
Internet users are encouraged to rate and review all kinds of services and products. These kinds of reviews are described as eWOM (electronic word-of-mouth). Our central question is ‘Are consumers using these reviews, and what is the role of eWOM as compared with commercial-marketer-generated information and advertising on the internet?’ The vacation decision process was used as the domain of investigation, but these results are also compared with four other domains. The conclusion is that the roles of both types of site are complementary. Furthermore, it was found that, overall, positive and neutral/mixed contributions to consumer-generated websites are far more frequent than negative ones. Based on these findings, the implications for marketing and advertising strategies are sketched out: additional to existing strategies, market research has to monitor the eWOM about brands and, by using this information, companies should flexibly adapt their advertising to the discussion points raised at the consumer-generated sites.
Can Old Media Enhance New Media?: How Traditional Advertising Pays off for an Online Social Network
Markus Pfeiffer and Markus Zinnbauer, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 50, No. 1, 2010, pp. 42-49
Allocating marketing budgets in the most efficient way remains one of the key challenges for any marketing executive.
Allocating marketing budgets in the most efficient way remains one of the key challenges for any marketing executive. Especially in cases of online pure plays such as social networks, the trade-off between online channels (display advertising and search engine marketing) versus classic communication (television, radio, print) has been fervently discussed during the last decade. In practice, online channels are often being favored for their direct accountability in terms of cost per click. To prove the actual value of various channels, the authors present a marketing mix modeling case study examining the business impact of various communication channels and the role of other external factors that influence usage of the website.
Beauty is in the Eye of the Tech Manager: How Technology Orientation and Interactive-Media Knowledge Can Drive (or Stall) Change
Larry Chiagouris and Vishal Lala , Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 49, No. 3, September 2009, pp. 328-338
Traditional media tools often are criticized for the waste of targeting noncustomers. Although marketing managers are aware of the potential for waste in the use of traditional media, such vehicles continue to dominate media budgets.
Traditional media tools often are criticized for the waste of targeting noncustomers. Although marketing managers are aware of the potential for waste in the use of traditional media, such vehicles continue to dominate media budgets. In this article, we explored the conditions under which managers are more likely to act on their perceptions of media waste in comparing traditional media with interactive media. Based on a national survey of managers in the United States, we found that their perceptions of wastefulness of traditional marketing media on implementation of interactive-marketing technologies are contingent upon their own personal technology orientation and their hierarchical position in the organization. Specifically, perception of media waste will lead to an increase in interactive-marketing technology budgets and use if the manager is technology oriented or is in a senior management position.
The Spacing Effects of Multiple Exposures on Memory: Implications for Advertising Scheduling
Alan G. Sawyer, Hayden Noel, and Chris Janiszewski, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 49, No. 2, June 2009, pp. 193-197
The “spacing effect” refers to the fact that longer intervals between exposures (such as successive presentations of online pop-ups) result in better learning than shorter intervals.
The “spacing effect” refers to the fact that longer intervals between exposures (such as successive presentations of online pop-ups) result in better learning than shorter intervals. This article offers nine empirical generalizations (EGs) about the overall size of the spacing effect and how it varies under different conditions. Overall, spacing effects are found to be robust, statistically significant and large. The EGs are based on results of a meta-analysis of laboratory experiments in cognitive psychology and marketing. Several implications of the results are proposed for planning advertising schedules for the new media as well as more traditional media. From an issue of JAR devoted to `empirical generalisations’: the papers were first presented at a conference at the Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania in December 2008.
Consumer attitudes and interactive digital advertising
Julian Ming-Sung Cheng, Charles Blankson, Edward Shih-Tse Wang & Lily Shui-Lien Chen, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 28, No. 3, 2009, pp. 501-525
This research examines consumer attitudes towards four sub-types of interactive digital advertising: internet-based e- and email advertising, and mobile-phone-based SMS- and MMS-type advertising.
This research examines consumer attitudes towards four sub-types of interactive digital advertising: internet-based e- and email advertising, and mobile-phone-based SMS- and MMS-type advertising. The differences in attitudes among these four sub-types of interactive digital advertising are also compared. Data are collected from three universities in Taiwan. Data analysis extracts three attitudinal forms (common factors) towards interactive digital advertising, namely, ‘informative’, ‘entertaining’ and ‘irritating’. Consumer attitudinal forms towards e-advertising and MMS-type m-advertising are both similar and positive (i.e. informative and less irritating and entertaining). Their attitudinal forms towards email advertising and SMS-type m-advertising are less positive (more irritating and less informative and entertaining). furthermore, the three attitudinal forms towards the four sub-types of interactive digital advertising are compared. Consumer ‘informative’ and ‘entertaining’ attitudinal forms towards e-advertising and MMS-type m-advertising are similar, while their attitudinal forms towards email advertising and SMS-type m-advertising are equal and lower than towards the previous two sub-types of interactive digital advertising. As for the ‘irritating’ attitudinal form, consumers feel more ‘irritated’ towards email advertising and SMS-type m-advertising, while their attitudinal forms towards e-advertising and MMS-type m-advertising are equal and less irritated.
Mapping the emerging digital frontier
Lee Ryan and Bernice Klaassen, ESOMAR, Annual Congress, Montreal, September 2008
As marketers grapple with institutional, cultural, and strategic transformations in an increasingly turbulent global economic environment, and as multinational clients concentrate expertise and resources in emerging markets that are increasingly critical to the bottom line, there is an obvious set of challenges facing both current research practice and its underlying philosophies.
As marketers grapple with institutional, cultural, and strategic transformations in an increasingly turbulent global economic environment, and as multinational clients concentrate expertise and resources in emerging markets that are increasingly critical to the bottom line, there is an obvious set of challenges facing both current research practice and its underlying philosophies. Emerging markets have been re-conceptualized as frontiers for financial growth, but often continue to be represented globally as being 'underdeveloped'. While global trends, global brands, products and advertising are present in these emerging markets, the conversation is also shifting between global and local. As a new wave of consumers gain access to a new set of products, they are also able to utilise their collective power and drive demand for relevant products and brands; and this will be even more evident in the digital frontier. This new wave of demand will need new products and new insights to support a reshaped global-local relationship. In turn, this will require new frameworks which will in part be shaped in Asia and not the West.
Squatting at the digital campfire - researching the open source software community
John Cromie and Michael Ewing, International Journal of Market Research, Vol. 50, No. 5, 2008, pp. 631-653
This paper describes an internet-mediated netnography of the open source software (OSS) community. A brief history of OSS is presented, along with a discussion of the defining characteristics of the phenomenon.
This paper describes an internet-mediated netnography of the open source software (OSS) community. A brief history of OSS is presented, along with a discussion of the defining characteristics of the phenomenon. A theoretical rationale for the method is then offered and several unique features detailed. The evolution of the methodology in practice is described and salient lessons highlighted. In addition to gathering a large volume of rich data as intended, early phases of the implementation of this method produced a number of unanticipated but significant findings. The paper concludes by summarising the key methodological considerations for conducting a phenomenology of a true online community.
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