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The High Stakes of Sweepstakes: Too Much of a Good Thing Can Demotivate Digital Consumers
Caroline Wilcox and Arch G. Woodside, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 52, No. 2, 2012, pp. 167-179
In preference-matching contexts—specifically, where people enter hoping to find some particular product or service they already know themselves to prefer—more choices should increase the likelihood that they will be successful in their search.
In preference-matching contexts—specifically, where people enter hoping to find some particular product or service they already know themselves to prefer—more choices should increase the likelihood that they will be successful in their search. Increasing the number of choices, however, actually increases the cognitive workload of consumers, and they may decide consciously or unconsciously simply to apply heuristics—such as clicking the delete button on complex e-mails. This study tested these two alternative theories in a large-field experiment focusing on advertising an experience brand (France as a vacation destination) to Americans under multiple treatment conditions. The findings supported the theory that fewer choices increase behavioral responses, but this effect reversed when an e-mail included a sweepstakes offer. Consequently, the authors found that “it depends on what is offered in conjunction with the direct-sales offers” may be the more accurate perspective than the “less-is-more” proposition.
New Media Research: User generated social media
Douglas Dunn and Debi Bester, Market Research Society, Annual Conference, 2010
This paper explains how research was influential at each stage of a successful case study on how to engage with youth using social networking culture.
This paper explains how research was influential at each stage of a successful case study on how to engage with youth using social networking culture. 'Mystery packages', as the campaign came to be known by its online audience, reached 11% of 15 to 20 year olds in the UK. The campaign turned the Royal National Lifeboat Institute from the least well-known charity amongst young people into one of the hottest online topics. The paper discusses how research techniques were adapted to fit with the new online environment, by focussing on how to engage with consumers in a genuinely participative way, so that they control output and messaging.
Consumer attitudes and interactive digital advertising
Julian Ming-Sung Cheng, Charles Blankson, Edward Shih-Tse Wang & Lily Shui-Lien Chen, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 28, No. 3, 2009, pp. 501-525
This research examines consumer attitudes towards four sub-types of interactive digital advertising: internet-based e- and email advertising, and mobile-phone-based SMS- and MMS-type advertising.
This research examines consumer attitudes towards four sub-types of interactive digital advertising: internet-based e- and email advertising, and mobile-phone-based SMS- and MMS-type advertising. The differences in attitudes among these four sub-types of interactive digital advertising are also compared. Data are collected from three universities in Taiwan. Data analysis extracts three attitudinal forms (common factors) towards interactive digital advertising, namely, ‘informative’, ‘entertaining’ and ‘irritating’. Consumer attitudinal forms towards e-advertising and MMS-type m-advertising are both similar and positive (i.e. informative and less irritating and entertaining). Their attitudinal forms towards email advertising and SMS-type m-advertising are less positive (more irritating and less informative and entertaining). furthermore, the three attitudinal forms towards the four sub-types of interactive digital advertising are compared. Consumer ‘informative’ and ‘entertaining’ attitudinal forms towards e-advertising and MMS-type m-advertising are similar, while their attitudinal forms towards email advertising and SMS-type m-advertising are equal and lower than towards the previous two sub-types of interactive digital advertising. As for the ‘irritating’ attitudinal form, consumers feel more ‘irritated’ towards email advertising and SMS-type m-advertising, while their attitudinal forms towards e-advertising and MMS-type m-advertising are equal and less irritated.
The Branding Impact of Brand Websites: Do Newsletters and Consumer Magazines Have a Moderating Role?
Brigitte Müller, Laurent Flores, Meriem Agrebi and Jean Louis Chandon, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 48, No. 3, Sept 2008, pp. 465-472
The internet offers both growth and loyalty opportunities for brands. To this end, in recent years, companies have accelerated the development of their websites, including richer and more interactive content as well as relationship tools such as email newsletter and consumer magazines.
The internet offers both growth and loyalty opportunities for brands. To this end, in recent years, companies have accelerated the development of their websites, including richer and more interactive content as well as relationship tools such as email newsletter and consumer magazines. Using the example of a leading French manufacturer’s website, the present research demonstrates that visitors satisfied with their overall website experience are more inclined to revisit and recommend the site and in turn develop more positive attitudes toward the brand as well as higher purchase intent. These relations are stronger for consumers that are members of the website email newsletter program and those that receive the brand consumer magazine.
Optimising the language of email survey invitations
Howard R. Moskowitz and Birgi Martin, International Journal of Market Research, Vol. 50, No. 4, 2008, pp. 491-510
Respondent cooperation has always been an important topic for the market research industry. One consequence is that over time a number of initiatives have addressed the issue.
Respondent cooperation has always been an important topic for the market research industry. One consequence is that over time a number of initiatives have addressed the issue. This paper differs from the previous ones in that it deals with the issue of optimising the invitation to participate as if it were a consumer product or service. Using experimental design, the paper shows how to identify different phrases that generate high vs low respondent intentions to participate. Three segments, or mindsets, of respondents emerged in the population. A validation step with a completely different panel showed the possibility of increasing the proportion of respondents participating through the use of betterworded, more motivating invitations.
The Determinants of Email Receivers’ Disseminating Behaviors on the Internet
Hung-Chang Chiu, Yi-Ching Hsieh, Ya-Hui Kao and Monle Lee, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 47, No. 4, Dec 2007, pp. 524-534
To investigate the determinants of the effects of a viral campaign, we employ the classical framework of a persuasive communication model, designated as “Who says what to whom in which channel and with what effect?” We also consider theories of consumer value, personality, word-of-mouth communication, and source credibility.
To investigate the determinants of the effects of a viral campaign, we employ the classical framework of a persuasive communication model, designated as “Who says what to whom in which channel and with what effect?” We also consider theories of consumer value, personality, word-of-mouth communication, and source credibility. On the basis of an experiment conducted in Taiwan, we find four main results. First, message recipients who receive emails from close interpersonal sources are more willing to forward them than messages from unfamiliar interpersonal or commercial sources. Second, those who receive more utilitarian or more hedonic messages are more willing to forward them. Third, those who score high on extraversion and openness and low on conscientiousness traits are more willing to forward a marketing message to others. Fourth, those who access the internet via a broadband connection are more willing to forward the message than are those who use dial-up modems.
Consumers’ attitudes toward unsolicited commercial e-mail and postal direct mail marketing methods: intrusiveness, perceived loss of control, and irritation
Mariko Morimoto and Susan Chang, The Journal of Interactive Advertising, Vol. 7, No. 1, Fall 2006
Using Psychological Reactance as the framework, this study sought to understand consumer attitudes towards two major direct marketing techniques: unsolicited commercial e-mail and postal direct mail.
Using Psychological Reactance as the framework, this study sought to understand consumer attitudes towards two major direct marketing techniques: unsolicited commercial e-mail and postal direct mail. In particular, audience perceptions of advertising intrusiveness, perceived loss of control (as conceptualized by Psychological Reactance), and irritation regarding the direct marketing techniques were investigated. The results of this survey study (N=119) indicated that recipients perceived unsolicited e-mails as more intrusive and irritating than postal direct mail. This study contributed to the theory of Psychological Reactance by indicating that recipients did not feel a loss of control regarding spam, thus Psychological Reactance was not fully supported in the context of these marketing communication techniques. Suggestions for direct marketing practitioners conclude the paper.
E-zines Silence the Brand Detractors
Barbara Briers, Siegfried Dewitte, and Jan Van den Bergh, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 46, No. 2, June 2006, pp. 199-208
In this article we investigated whether a company’s recommendation factor can be increased by opt-in e-zines.
In this article we investigated whether a company’s recommendation factor can be increased by opt-in e-zines. A sample of 817 railway travelers was interviewed on the train. Using Reichheld’s (2001) recommendation index, respondents were categorized as brand detractors, passively satisfied customers, or brand promoters. Respondents giving permission (n = 555) received either none or three e-zines in a period of six weeks. Post-measurement results (n = 221) showed that the proportion of detractors was significantly lower among respondents who received the newsletters compared to those who received no e-zines. Personalization to the receivers’ lifestyle, however, had a negative effect on recommendation. We conclude with managerial implications and suggestions for future research.
Impact of Gender Differences on the Evaluation of Promotional Emails
Rajneesh Suri and Marissa V Phillip, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 44, No. 4, Dec 2004, pp. 360-368
Advertisers are recognizing the internet's potential for helping firms directly communicate with consumers using media rich emails.
Advertisers are recognizing the internet's potential for helping firms directly communicate with consumers using media rich emails. Though the efficiency of such emails cannot be denied, their effectiveness needs to be assessed. It is argued that components of promotional emails are likely to be evaluated differently by males and females. The results from a survey suggest that women and men differ in their evaluation of information content and the visual presentation used in emails. Compared to men, women were also more concerned about privacy and preferred to use the media to build social contacts. Implications for using promotional emails are discussed.
Email advertising: exploratory insights from Finland
Marko Merisavo, Mika Raulas, Joel Van Durme and Brett A.S Martin, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 43, No. 3, September 2003, pp. 293-300
Since the advent of the internet, much speculation has ensued regarding its tangible benefits to business.
Since the advent of the internet, much speculation has ensued regarding its tangible benefits to business. This article looks at the effectiveness of email advertising to promote information to consumers. Within this email promotion context, and using data from a survey of 838 female Finnish consumers of a major international cosmetics brand, we investigate consumer perceptions of email advertising. Specifically, within an exploratory research context we address two research questions: (1) What email advertising factors may influence visits to the company website? and (2) What email advertising factors may influence visits to a physical (i.e., bricks-and-mortar) company sales outlet? Results suggest that email advertisers should strive to generate emails that are perceived as useful. Useful emails appear to influence consumers to visit the store primarily to either buy the product or view the product firsthand, rather than visit the company website. However, as consumers could not buy the advertised products from the website, these findings should be regarded as preliminary. Factors influencing perceptions of email advertising usefulness are explored along with limitations and future research directions.
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