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How using versus showing interaction between characters and products boosts product placement effectiveness
Bernadette Kamleitner and Abul Khair Jyote, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 32, No. 4, 2013, pp. 633-653
Placements in movies increase brand awareness. Whether they are effective beyond memory, (e.g.
Placements in movies increase brand awareness. Whether they are effective beyond memory, (e.g. in terms of brand attitudes) is a contested issue. This paper argues and shows that a specific type of placement, character–product interaction (CPI), is able to achieve effectiveness across measures of placement success. A comparison of three experimental versions of the same movie demonstrates the consistent advantage of CPI placements over static prominent placements. Additional exploratory analyses suggest that placement effectiveness may also depend on characteristics of the placed product.
PP for 'product placement' or 'puzzled public'? The effectiveness of symbols as warnings of product placement and the moderating role of brand recall
Tina Tessitore and Maggie Geuens, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 32, No. 3, 2013, pp. 419-442
This research examines the effectiveness of the European ‘PP’ symbol, recently introduced as a warning of product placement in locally produced television programmes.
This research examines the effectiveness of the European ‘PP’ symbol, recently introduced as a warning of product placement in locally produced television programmes. The authors test whether this symbol counters the pervasive effect of product placement on purchase intention. Study 1 shows that the symbol does not prompt resistance to the influence of product placement. This is because the majority of consumers neither notice nor comprehend the symbol. In Study 2, two training methods are tested to increase the symbol’s effectiveness: (1) verbal label training and (2) a combination of verbal label training and information training. The addition of information training is necessary to increase the symbol’s noticeability, whereas verbal label training helps increase the symbol’s comprehensibility and effectiveness in activating persuasion knowledge and decreasing purchase intention. Finally, the results provide evidence that brand recall is crucial for resistance to product placement, suggesting the importance of brand recall as a moderator of resistance processes.
Observations: Unpaid product placement: the elephant in the room in UK TV's new paid-for product placement market
Chris Hackley and Rungpaka Amy Hackley née Tiwsakul, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 31, No. 4, 2012, pp. 703-718
Paid-for product placement was permitted for the first time on commercial TV in the UK by media regulator Ofcom in February 2011.
Paid-for product placement was permitted for the first time on commercial TV in the UK by media regulator Ofcom in February 2011. At the time of writing, some 12 months later, estimates suggest there have been fewer than 20 paid placement deals, amounting to revenue less than 2% of the £150 million that optimists estimated the industry to be worth. In this commentary we draw on confidential and informal interviews with industry insiders to set previous academic research in the field within the UK’s unique regulatory context, and we highlight problems inherent in the new industry. Foremost among these is the reluctance of the broadcasters and Ofcom to acknowledge that the free prop supply system that has provided branded scene props to UK productions, including the BBC, for some 30 years, has been and continues to be a de facto product placement industry. Given that, even in a mature paid-for placement market such as the US, industry insiders estimate that 80% of brands on TV are not paid for, we argue that unpaid product placement, also known as free prop supply, is the elephant in the room in regulation and academic research. We make suggestions as to how the impasse in the UK TV product placement industry might be resolved, and we outline ways in which academic research might play a supporting role.
The implicit influence of bimodal brand placement on children: information integration or information interference?
Haiming Hang, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 31, No. 3, 2012, pp. 465-484
This research compares two competing views – the integration view and the interference view – to see whether presenting a brand placement in multiple modalities can enhance its effectiveness.
This research compares two competing views – the integration view and the interference view – to see whether presenting a brand placement in multiple modalities can enhance its effectiveness. Our results first show that majority of the children can not recall a brand placement embedded in a video game. Our results further demonstrate that presenting a brand placement in a single modality makes children more likely to choose the target brand at test than presenting it in multiple modalities. These results have important implications for both public policy makers and marketing managers.
The impact of game customization and control mechanisms on recall of integral and peripheral brand placements in videogames
Frank E. Dardis, Mike Schmierbach, and Anthony M. Limperos, The Journal of Interactive Advertising, Vol. 12, Issue 2, Spring 2012
As marketers invest more and more money into in-game brand placements, little research has tested the effects of videogame customization and controller type in relation to advertising effects, even though these factors have demonstrated importance in other areas of gaming research.
As marketers invest more and more money into in-game brand placements, little research has tested the effects of videogame customization and controller type in relation to advertising effects, even though these factors have demonstrated importance in other areas of gaming research. Results from an experiment show that game customization significantly increases recall of an integral brand placement-one that is central to actual game play-but not of peripheral brands, which simply appear within the game. Regardless of brand type, players using a traditional controller exhibit significantly greater recall than those who use a newer, more naturally mapping controller. An interaction effect indicates that the influence of controller type disappears when customization is allowed; this effect is not specific to either type of brand. These results are interpreted through models of processing fluency and the limited capacity model of motivated mediated message processing. The article concludes with marketing implications regarding technological videogame advances.
Product placements in movies and on Broadway: a field study
Rick T. Wilson and Brian D. Till, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 30, No. 3, 2011, pp. 373-398
Product placement is increasing in importance as a non-traditional method to reach consumers. A review of previous research on this topic indicates three research gaps: the need for additional ecologically valid field testing, more research using category-cued recall of the brand as the basic measure of product placement effectiveness, and more studies covering entertainment media other than film and TV.
Product placement is increasing in importance as a non-traditional method to reach consumers. A review of previous research on this topic indicates three research gaps: the need for additional ecologically valid field testing, more research using category-cued recall of the brand as the basic measure of product placement effectiveness, and more studies covering entertainment media other than film and TV. To these ends, we conducted two field studies. The first replicates prior laboratory research by assessing brand recall from product placements in four movies, while the second extends previous research by assessing brand recall in a Broadway musical. Both these field studies confirm previous laboratory findings in that those placements that are combined audio-visual, prominently displayed, have actor involvement, and have two or more verbal mentions of the brand significantly increase consumers'subsequent category-cued recall of the brand name of the product placement.
Mixing advertising and editorial content in radio programmes: Appreciation and recall of brand placements versus commercials
Eva A. van Reijmersdal, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 30, No. 3, 2011, pp. 425-446
Although the literature on brand placement is rapidly evolving, no studies thus far have focused on radio brand placement or on the effects of the combination of brand placement and commercials.
Although the literature on brand placement is rapidly evolving, no studies thus far have focused on radio brand placement or on the effects of the combination of brand placement and commercials. Therefore, the present experiment (N = 153) focused on the effects of radio brand placement on liking, credibility and brand recall. In addition, the effects of the combination of brand placement and a commercial were studied. As predicted based on source credibility and intentional exposure theory, the results showed that brand placement is more liked and perceived as more credible than commercials, and that exposure to brand placement has a stronger effect on brand recall. A combination of brand placement and a commercial evokes higher brand recall than exposure to a commercial alone. However, there were no synergy effects for the combination of brand placement and a commercial. Underlying mechanisms were tested, showing the importance of format credibility in brand placement effects.
Young adults' responses to product placement in movies and television shows: A comparative study of the United States and South Korea
Taejun (David) Lee, Yongjun Sung and Sejung Marina Choi, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 30, No. 3, 2011, pp. 479-507
This research examines young adults’ attitudes towards product placement in films and television shows from two countries that represent contrasting cultural distinctions: the US and Korea.
This research examines young adults’ attitudes towards product placement in films and television shows from two countries that represent contrasting cultural distinctions: the US and Korea. The results suggest that young adults in both countries perceive film product placement in a similar way but, with respect to television, Korean respondents tend to perceive it as less effective in enhancing content realism and more unethical and misleading. In addition, the findings suggest that, for both film and TV, materialism, attitude towards advertising, and realism enhancement appeared to be significant predictors of consumer cognitive response to product placement. However, cross-cultural differences were observed for TV product placement. In the US, materialism and realism enhancement were found to be most powerful predictors of cognitive response to product placement. In contrast, attitude towards advertising and materialism were found to be the strongest predictors in Korea. Implications for both advertising researchers and practitioners are provided.
The Product Well Placed: The Relative Impact of Placement and Audience Characteristics on Placement Recall
Etienne Bressoud, Jean-Marc Lehu and Cristel Antonia Russell, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 50, No. 4, 2010
The relative impact of placement and audience characteristics on product placement recall is assessed with survey data from 3,532 individuals who viewed a DVD movie rental the previous day.
The relative impact of placement and audience characteristics on product placement recall is assessed with survey data from 3,532 individuals who viewed a DVD movie rental the previous day. Eleven American movies were selected and the executional characteristics of 88 placements therein were coded. Viewing the movie on a large screen emerged as the most important factor on recall: in addition to its main effect, it increases the positive impact of visual characteristics of the placement. Another key finding is the detrimental effect of multiple simultaneous placements: Not only do they reduce placement recall, they eliminate the otherwise positive impact of a placement's level of plot integration and auditory mention.
The effect of involvement on ad judgment in a computer-mediated environment: the mediating role of presence
Stefan G. Nicovich, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 29, No. 4, 2010, pp. 597-620
This study investigates the relationship between involvement, presence and communication (advertising and word-of-mouth) judgement in a computer-mediated communications environment.
This study investigates the relationship between involvement, presence and communication (advertising and word-of-mouth) judgement in a computer-mediated communications environment. A popular computer game was modified to incorporate persuasive communication within game play. Results indicate that involvement affects communication judgement and that the degree of experienced presence within the environment mediates this relationship.
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