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Are You In Good Hands? Slogan Recall: What Really Matters
Chiranjeev Kohli, Sunil Thomas and Rajneesh Suri, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 53, No. 1, 2013, pp. 31-42
Slogans are very important in brand building, and recall is considered one of the most effective measures of slogan success.
Slogans are very important in brand building, and recall is considered one of the most effective measures of slogan success. For this study, 220 respondents were asked to recall slogans. Factors impacting recall of the 150 short-listed slogans were investigated. The study relied on objective (rather than perceptual) data, and factored in the natural variance associated with the variables of interest in the marketplace without imposing the artificial constraints of lab settings. The results suggest that to improve recall, slogans should be retained for long periods of time and supported by extensive marketing budgets. When designing the slogans, care should also be taken to keep them short. However, contrary to expectations, none of the other design elements—complexity of slogans, use of jingles, and use of rhymes—had an impact on slogan recall.
The effectiveness of regulatory (in)congruent ads: the moderating role of an ad's rational versus emotional tone
Erlinde Cornelis, Leen Adams and Veroline Cauberghe, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 31, No. 2, 2012, pp. 397-420
In a 2 (ad tone: emotional versus rational) × 2 (ad’s regulatory focus: prevention versus promotion) × 2 (viewer’s self-regulatory focus: prevention versus promotion) between-subjects experimental design, the effectiveness of fair trade campaigns is tested.
In a 2 (ad tone: emotional versus rational) × 2 (ad’s regulatory focus: prevention versus promotion) × 2 (viewer’s self-regulatory focus: prevention versus promotion) between-subjects experimental design, the effectiveness of fair trade campaigns is tested. The results show that, in the case of a rational ad, regulatory congruence (versus incongruence) effects were found (though only for prevention focused people), whereas in the case of an emotional ad, regulatory incongruence (versus congruence) effects were found (though only for promotion focused people).
Visual and verbal rhetoric in advertising: the case of ‘resonance’
Vlasis Stathakopoulos, Ioannis G. Theodorakis and Eleni Mastoridou, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 27, No. 4, 2008, pp. 629-658
There has been a growing stream of research focusing on the application of rhetorical figures in advertising.
There has been a growing stream of research focusing on the application of rhetorical figures in advertising. Resonance, a rhetorical figure based on a visual–verbal interaction, is the issue of interest in the present paper. Specifically, we conducted two experiments in order to explore consumers’ responses towards resonance as well as test its limits in terms of visual–verbal incongruity. According to our results, resonance influences consumers in a positive manner. However, care should be taken with regard to the extent of applied incongruity between the visual and verbal elements on which resonance is grounded. A higher degree of incongruity is most likely to generate negative results.
The Relationship of Motivators, Needs, and Involvement Factors to Preferences for Military Recruitment Slogans
Sylvia A. Miller, M. Suzanne Clinton and John Camey, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 47, No. 1, Mar 2007, pp. 66-78
This study examined whether individuals with preferences for certain military recruitment slogans can be identified by characteristic factors for motivation, needs, and involvement.
This study examined whether individuals with preferences for certain military recruitment slogans can be identified by characteristic factors for motivation, needs, and involvement. Inasmuch as there appears to be no consistent theory of motivators and needs incorporated into the design of military recruitment campaigns, this study was designed to determine whether individual preferences for, and responsiveness to, certain military recruitment slogans may be related to the individual’s motivators, needs, and sense of involvement with a given slogan. The data on motivators and needs demonstrates that a relationship exists between the factors of motivation, needs, and involvement, on the one hand, and preference or lack of preference for one or more military recruitment slogans on the other hand. The study suggests that military recruitment slogans should be designed to appeal to potential recruits who exhibit characteristics that suggest they are likely to find military service suitable. The broad implication of this study is that, in the planning and execution of any “commitment/sign up” campaign, care should be taken to ensure that the slogan used appeals to the needs of the desired target group.
Cognitive and attitudinal effects of technical advertising copy: the roles of gender, self-assessed and objective consumer knowledge
Robert Meeds, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 23, No. 3, 2004, pp. 309-336
The roles of two constructs of consumer knowledge and self-assessed product knowledge and objective product knowledge and are examined in an experiment in which consumers read ads for high-tech products containing high and low levels of technical language.
The roles of two constructs of consumer knowledge and self-assessed product knowledge and objective product knowledge and are examined in an experiment in which consumers read ads for high-tech products containing high and low levels of technical language. Interactions between gender and the two consumer knowledge measures were also explored. Self-assessed knowledge was a better predictor of participants’ cognitive responses and general attitudinal evaluations. Objective knowledge, on the other hand, was a better predictor of ratings for specific product attributes. These differential results are considered with respect to the role of technical language in consumer information search strategies.
Understanding and optimizing communications and the 'look'. Sustainable co-creativity using Internet-enabled, visual conjoint analysis
Mandhu Manchiah, Barbara Itty, Jonathan Marcus, Alex Gofman and Howard Moskowitz, ESOMAR, Asia Pacific Conference, Shanghai, March 2004
This paper presents a knowledge-creation approach permitting both marketer and researcher to apply principles of systematized design to concepts in text format and simulated visual format.
This paper presents a knowledge-creation approach permitting both marketer and researcher to apply principles of systematized design to concepts in text format and simulated visual format. The goal is to establish a 'co-creation' process whereby the research allows untrained consumers to specify communication aspects of the product/service, and even helps synthesize new product/service categories representing untapped opportunities. The approach, implemented on the Internet, enables the researcher at the early development stage to identify aspects of this newly synthesized service; what to say, how to say it, and what a direct marketing mailing piece might look like from the outside. Most importantly, in light of today's need for rapid information, at low cost, applicable worldwide, the approach was developed in low-cost-to execute, 'just-in-time' format in which multiple iterations can be done with relatively little effort beyond 'thinking through the problem'.
Pharmaceutical advertising in the USA: information or influence?
Bruce A Huhmann, Jennifer J Argo and Kellly J Main, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 23, No. 1, 2004, pp. 119-142
While many parts of pharmaceutical advertisements are regulated, each advertisement alsocontains a promotional component in which the advertiser conveys information to theconsumer.
While many parts of pharmaceutical advertisements are regulated, each advertisement alsocontains a promotional component in which the advertiser conveys information to theconsumer. The purpose of this research is to examine the promotional portion ofpharmaceutical advertisements to determine whether factual information and rationalarguments are being provided to consumers to inform them of health problems, treatmentoptions, and medical science advances. The current research compares the promotionalportion of direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertisements for prescription drugs withadvertisements for over-the-counter (OTC) remedies and dietary supplements usingcontent analysis. The results indicate that DTC advertisements do not solely rely onrational appeals; instead, they are using more positive and negative emotional appeals thanOTC remedies or dietary supplements. Further, DTC advertisements also feature fewerwomen in their advertisements, more characters under the age of 18 and primarilyCaucasian models.
Analysis of the Impact of Executional Factors on Advertising Performance
David W Stewart and David H Furse, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 40, No. 6, November/December 2000
This paper is one of 18 selected by the Editorial Review Board of The Journal of Advertising Research to be a 'classic' - an article that has withstood the test of time.
This paper is one of 18 selected by the Editorial Review Board of The Journal of Advertising Research to be a 'classic' - an article that has withstood the test of time. First published in 1985, the authors set out to answer the question 'what executional devices influence the effectiveness of a TV commercial?' They conclude that executional factors appear to account for 13 to 26% of the variance in related recall measures depending on how many variables were used. They also state that the single most important factor related to persuasion was the presence of a brand differentiating message,
Creative Differences Between Copywriters and Art Directors
Charles E. Young, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 40, No. 3, May/June 2000
This paper reports findings from a telephone study conducted among agency art directors and copywriters about their attitudes and beliefs about television commercials.
This paper reports findings from a telephone study conducted among agency art directors and copywriters about their attitudes and beliefs about television commercials. The study finds significant differences between these two groups. Art directors appear to be more sensitive to the visual look and feel of TV commercials and attach more importance to the originality and attention-getting power of the execution. Writers, on the other hand, are more concerned about issues of relatability, believability, and persuasiveness of an advertisement. Importantly, a significant number of creatives believe that writers have more control than art directors do over the kinds of commercials that get produced. And, in particular, one-third of the art directors in our survey are concerned that recall and other traditional verbal research measures may be shortchanging visually creative advertising. This suggests the need for more balanced methods of advertising measurement which can give full weight to the visual power of television advertising.
Observations: Creating 'Memes' While Creating Advertising
Betsy D Gelb, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 37, No. 6, November/December 1997
Can ads be designed to make more likely the replication of the message they convey - to enable their message to 'live on' elsewhere after the advertising no longer is broadcast, published, or mailed? Yes, they can, according to theory that postulates the existence of 'memes': self-replicating ideas that move through time and space without further effort from the source.
Can ads be designed to make more likely the replication of the message they convey - to enable their message to 'live on' elsewhere after the advertising no longer is broadcast, published, or mailed? Yes, they can, according to theory that postulates the existence of 'memes': self-replicating ideas that move through time and space without further effort from the source. A brand name, an image, a phrase, or a linkage of two or more concepts can be seen or heard again, then again, then again, without additional dissemination or effort by the original advertiser. As an example, 'Where's the Beef?' comes to mind.
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