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The current practices in food advertising - the usage and effectiveness of different advertising claims
Kihan Kim, Yunjae Cheong & Lu Zheng, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 28, No. 3, 2009, pp. 527-553
A content analysis and a quasi-experiment were performed to examine the current practices in food advertising, and the usage and the effectiveness of different advertising claims across two food categories (hedonic vs functional).
A content analysis and a quasi-experiment were performed to examine the current practices in food advertising, and the usage and the effectiveness of different advertising claims across two food categories (hedonic vs functional). The content analysis revealed that taste and specific nutrition claims are the two dominating types of advertising claims in recent food advertisements. Also, a greater proportion of advertisements for functional (vs hedonic) foods appeared to use such nutrition/health claims as general health and contains nutrient claims, whereas a greater proportion of advertisements for hedonic (vs functional) foods used taste claims. However, these current practices of food advertising were called into question by the results of the quasi-experiment, which showed that the nutrition/health claims were more effective when promoting hedonic (vs functional) foods, whereas taste claims were more effective when promoting functional (vs hedonic) foods in generating favourable attitudes and purchase intention. Implications, limitations and future research directions are discussed.
A Critical Review of "Managing Brand Experience: The Market Contact Audit™"
Raymond Pettit, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 45, No. 1, Mar 2005, pp. 17-18
This paper is a critique of the article 'Managing Brand Experience: The Marketing Contact Audit' by Amitava Chattopadhyay and Jean- Louis Laborie, which appears in the same issue of JAR (March 2005, Vol.
This paper is a critique of the article 'Managing Brand Experience: The Marketing Contact Audit' by Amitava Chattopadhyay and Jean- Louis Laborie, which appears in the same issue of JAR (March 2005, Vol. 45,1). Overall, Petitt praises the article, but poses 11 comments and questions that he believes would shed further light on the efficacy and usefulness of the Market Contact Audit research tool it describes.
Managing Brand Experience: The Market Contact Audit™
Jean-Louis Laborie and Amitava Chattopadhyay, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 45, No. 1, Mar 2005, pp. 9-16
Although 90 percent of marketing communication investments are accounted for by investments in brand contacts, i.e., the points at which the consumer and the brand come in contact with each other, until now, there has not been a tool that allows managers to identify, a priori and from a consumer perspective, the most effective set of contacts in which to invest.
Although 90 percent of marketing communication investments are accounted for by investments in brand contacts, i.e., the points at which the consumer and the brand come in contact with each other, until now, there has not been a tool that allows managers to identify, a priori and from a consumer perspective, the most effective set of contacts in which to invest. We describe a tool that we have developed that empowers the brand owners/marketers to (1) identify and select the critical contacts that are relevant for a particular brand, (2) integrate across these key contact points, and (3) deliver brand experience through a relevant and pertinent set of consumer brand encounters at a minimum cost, but with maximal impact. We then discuss how the metrics derived from this tool can be used to inform a variety of important decisions in the context of managing brand contacts. We close with a discussion of some of the regularities that we have uncovered from the over 150 brands that we have audited across numerous markets and categories.
Allocation model: a tool to develop effective media plans for Turkey
Elif Deniz Alakavuk and Arzu Tektas, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 22, No. 3, 2003, pp. 333-348
This paper deals with media planning, which is a challenging problem for both academicians and practitioners.
This paper deals with media planning, which is a challenging problem for both academicians and practitioners. An integer linear programming model on media planning is developed which incorporates qualitative and quantitative aspects suitable to the characteristics and needs of a media environment. The objective of the model is to allocate a given advertising budget among competing magazines by the use of analytic hierarchy process (AHP) so that opportunity-to-see (OTS) is maximised. The application of the model to two consumer products proved to increase OTS considerably. The development and application of the model is especially valuable for Turkey because the number of magazines is continuously increasing, readership is low, syndicated research services are limited and models are not widely used in media planning.
Learning more about planning for marketing efficiency
Alan Smith, ESOMAR, Media Mix Audience Measurement, LA, June 2003
Starting with a discussion of two analyses from a recently published multibrand study, this paper argues that such work could help us learn much more about the effects of different marketing and planning decisions.
Starting with a discussion of two analyses from a recently published multibrand study, this paper argues that such work could help us learn much more about the effects of different marketing and planning decisions. The second part of the paper outlines a proposal which develops this idea. It proposes a major programme of further analyses of the existing databases in the hands of the major syndicated research services such as purchase panels, shop audits and ad awareness studies. Key aspects and benefits of the proposal are identified. A high level of cooperative effort would be required, involving advertisers, advertising agencies and the research companies. Media owners would also want to be closely involved, but in a different manner because they are not directly involved in the purchase and interpretation of the data to be used. We are on the threshold of being able to build a much improved starter kit of market planning knowledge, with the potential for delivering a greatly improved marketing ROI. The question is no longer how to improve marketing efficiency, but when?
Beyond media plans
Oscar Jamhouri and Hans Ulrich Krause, ESOMAR, Consumer Insight Congress, Barcelona, Sept 2002
The traditional 'rules' of marketing are undergoing serious re-examination as companies seek new ways to build strong brands in the post mass-media era.
The traditional 'rules' of marketing are undergoing serious re-examination as companies seek new ways to build strong brands in the post mass-media era. There is an urgent need to answer the core questions of which contacts to use, and how to allocate brand's marketing investments beyond mass media and across the wide variety of contact choices. The Market ContactAudit(c) tool was developed to help answering those questions. A Procter & Gamble application of the MCA(c) to a concrete business problem illustrates how the tool is operated to improve marketing effectiveness and efficiency.
Brand-to-media consonance assessments
Robert Passikoff and Manuel Gutierriez, ESOMAR, Print Audience Measurement, Cannes, June 2002, pp. 137-150
This paper describes the work conducted by Kohler Co. and Brand Keys, Inc.
This paper describes the work conducted by Kohler Co. and Brand Keys, Inc. in support of a Brand-to-Media Consonance Model as a way of optimizing traditional media planning tools. Media planning has become increasingly difficult: the lines are blurred between the demographic and lifestyle profiles of those exposed to the many media options, making it more uncertain where the highest quality target audiences are to be found. Advertisers get fewer arrows to hit receding consumer targets, and worse yet, it is harder to be certain which bull's eyes really count. It is imperative for advertisers to optimize their media selections. The paper describes how Kohler Co. and Brand Keys, Inc. conducted a two-phase study to identify the appropriate brand consonance metrics to help strategically differentiate among 'appropriate' media options identified via traditional media planning techniques.
Multi media optimizing optimistics
Nick Hiddleston and John Faasse, ESOMAR, Print Audience Measurement, Cannes, June 2002, pp. 209-221
This paper describes the development by Initiative Media of Matrix of a new tool for optimizing multi-media campaigns, based on a survey held in 12 countries amongst over 24,000 respondents, the main purpose of which was to establish the overlap in the use of different media.
This paper describes the development by Initiative Media of Matrix of a new tool for optimizing multi-media campaigns, based on a survey held in 12 countries amongst over 24,000 respondents, the main purpose of which was to establish the overlap in the use of different media. Reach and frequency for any combination of media can be calculated by combining these figures with regular media surveys. As media contacts may differ in value for delivering desired communication effects, different weighting methods are proposed. The first is based on the expert opinion of a large number of media specialists; the second is database oriented; and the third is based on econometric modelling of the multi-media mix. However, it appears most available tracking studies do not provide the data needed for proper modelling. Therefore an alternative layout is proposed for tracking studies.
Planned or Impulse Purchases? How to Create Effective Infomercials
Brett A.S Martin and Tom Agee, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 41, No. 6, November/December 2001
Conventional wisdom suggests that most purchases made from infomercials - 30-minute direct-response television advertisements - are made on impulse.
Conventional wisdom suggests that most purchases made from infomercials - 30-minute direct-response television advertisements - are made on impulse. However, this study of 878 infomercial purchasers of six products from a major international infomercial marketer indicates that the majority of purchase decisions involved some degree of planning rather than simply being made on the spur of the moment. Factors influencing whether a purchase was an impulse or planned decision included: comments by experts, demonstrations, the levels of previous product interest, pre-purchase thinking about the product, and prior exposure to the advertisement, as well as the number of infomercials viewed by consumers. Having children aged between 10 and 14 years old also had an influence.
The Future of Multimedia Research
Dr Gerhard Franz, International Journal of Market Research, Vol. 42, No. 4, 2000
The media explosion and the fragmentation of audiences is the hardest current and future challenge for media research.
The media explosion and the fragmentation of audiences is the hardest current and future challenge for media research. New tools will be needed to support the decision-making in the process of media selection. This paper proposes a practical perspective on how media research can deal with the problems of the media explosion by integrating and complementing the already existing media surveys. In most markets today we have TV panels, readership, radio and poster surveys, to name just the most important, as stand-alone approaches with divergent information for target group definitions. Planning of multimedia campaigns currently relies on a medium-by-medium procedure. For the integration of the existing surveys in a multimedia planning system, two additional surveys are required to close the missing link: a multimedia survey, which establishes the usage of media categories, and a target group core survey, which is needed to collect consumer behaviour for target group definition. The target group core survey serves as a source from which the same target group data are spread via data fusions to the multimedia survey and to all relevant single-medium surveys. This framework would support a fully integrated planning of multimedia campaigns from budgeting across media categories to optimisation within media categories. The effectiveness of multimedia campaigns has to be controlled by linking investments in media categories with outcome indicators like sales or advertising awareness measures. For this purpose market modelling techniques are appropriate. They can be used to estimate the isolated effects of individual media categories. The results are used to fine-tune the allocation of media budgets to media categories, either on the run or in the next planning period.
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