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Behavioural evidence for the effectiveness of threat appeals in the promotion of healthy food to children
Karine M. Charry and Nathalie T.M. Demoulin, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 31, No. 4, 2012, pp. 773-794
The current paper investigates the effectiveness and the persuasion process of threat appeals on children.
The current paper investigates the effectiveness and the persuasion process of threat appeals on children. Disregarded by scholars, probably for ethical reasons, the study of negative appeals targeting 8- to 12-year-olds to promote healthy food seems nevertheless relevant, in the unprecedented context of childhood obesity. To test our assumptions, an experiment was set up with 126 children. Results indicate that the appeal is effective and that the persuasion process of threatening advertisements is led by affective reactions. In contrast to earlier research on older targets, cognitive processes do not improve its effectiveness. Furthermore, exposure to threat appeals increased pre-adolescents’ healthy food consumption in comparison with appeals that may be considered more ‘typical’, such as fun and action. These conclusions and a teleological perspective of ethics invite further study of threat appeals targeting children.
The Power of a Package: Product Claims Drive Purchase Decisions
Nora Lado Cousté, Mercedes Martos-Partal and Ester Martínez-Ros, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 52, No. 3, 2012, pp. 364-375
This research focuses on trends in new-product packaging claims and how such claims influence firm value.
This research focuses on trends in new-product packaging claims and how such claims influence firm value. Empirical evidence revealed differential impacts of three types of packaging claims: nutritional, environmental, and production. The result of the current study also identified an increasingly popular trend toward introducing multiple claims simultaneously on the same package. Theoretical and empirical evidence confirm that these claims relate to firm value. The empirical analyses included more than 18,000 new products from 81 firms in the US consumer packaged goods industry over a 10-year period.
Dietary supplement advertising in the US: a review and research agenda
Denise E. DeLorme, Jisu Huh, Leonard N. Reid and Soontae An, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 31, No. 3, 2012, pp. 547-577
Dietary supplement advertising is an important, yet neglected, advertising research subject. This article overviews the US dietary supplement industry, describes advertising practices for dietary supplement products, and reviews the existing research on the topic.
Dietary supplement advertising is an important, yet neglected, advertising research subject. This article overviews the US dietary supplement industry, describes advertising practices for dietary supplement products, and reviews the existing research on the topic. Based on the literature review, we offer a research agenda for advertising researchers around the world to stimulate and guide future investigations of dietary supplement advertising.
Brazil's middle class? Your table is ready: Opportunities and challenges facing the food service industry in Brazil
Gabriel Aleixo and Renata Ribeiro, ESOMAR, Latin America, Mexico City, May 2012
Brazil's middle-class population has risen sharply in the last decade and in 2012 nearly half of Brazil's population is classified as middle class.
Brazil's middle-class population has risen sharply in the last decade and in 2012 nearly half of Brazil's population is classified as middle class. As a result, Brazilians are dining out more than ever. To understand how this growth affects the food service industry, Nestlé Brazil proposed a mass-ethnographic project using online research communities to better understand the Brazilian middle-class market. The findings identified two key pillars that drive the conscious decisions consumers make when selecting a place to eat - the environment and the food. It also illustrated that, to the Brazilian middle class, eating out is not just a practical need - it is charged with emotional associations related to the transformation of living standards. Understanding these emotional cues are key to reaching this growing market.
Are nutrient-content claims always effective? Match-up effects between product type and claim type in food advertising
Hojoon Choi, Hye-Jin Paek and Karen Whitehill King, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 31, No. 2, 2012, pp. 421-443
The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which recently prevalent nutrient-content claims in food advertising are effective and how the level of effectiveness might differ between food products perceived as healthy and unhealthy.
The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which recently prevalent nutrient-content claims in food advertising are effective and how the level of effectiveness might differ between food products perceived as healthy and unhealthy. Guided by the match-up hypothesis and its theoretical underpinnings, a set of 2 (nutrient-content vs taste claim) × 2 (healthy vs unhealthy food) experiments investigated the impact of nutrient-content claims compared to the impact of taste claims on two different food product types. The authors found that (a) respondents evaluated food ads with nutrient-content claims as healthier than food ads with taste claims regardless of product type, but (b) the respondents showed better advertising evaluations on nutrient-content claims for foods perceived as healthy foods and on taste claims for foods perceived as unhealthy. Our findings provide implications and suggestions for improving food advertising and marketing strategies, and public health policy.
How online behavior impacts offline action
Robert Bowman, Natasha Stevens and Matt Pace, ARF Experiential Learning, Re:think conference, 2012
This paper outlines the design and leverage of Unilever's CybrTrak tool, which it uses to listen to conversations on social media.
This paper outlines the design and leverage of Unilever's CybrTrak tool, which it uses to listen to conversations on social media. It enables the company to instantly identify possible causes for any changes in the marketplace as well as compare what shoppers say on social media with what they do online (search and clickstream). Using the tool on the 'meal solutions' topic, CyberTrak revealed that where meal solutions are discussed is separate from where they are solved and purchased, meaning that retailers are not part of the conversation or solution. Overall, the paper argues that understanding behaviour and conversations online provides a medium to view pre-purchase and post-purchase comments and behaviour.
Does consumer scepticism negate the effects of visceral cues in weight loss advertising?
Clinton Amos and Stacy Landreth Grau, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 30, No. 4, 2011, pp. 693-719
The theory of visceral influences posits that certain drive states are commonly associated with impulsive behaviour, and that cues that maximise a reward’s temporal and hedonic appeal can even persuade wary consumers.
The theory of visceral influences posits that certain drive states are commonly associated with impulsive behaviour, and that cues that maximise a reward’s temporal and hedonic appeal can even persuade wary consumers. In this research we examine the effects of visceral cues in a weight loss advertising context on both sceptical and non-sceptical individuals, given that past examinations by the FTC had revealed the potentially visceral nature of weight loss advertising. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of visceral cues in a weight loss advertising context, and to examine whether or not ad scepticism can diminish the effects of visceral cues. Results from two experimental studies indicate that visceral cues that emphasise vividness of reward and provide a visual prime have attention-narrowing and impulse-inducing effects that persist regardless of ad scepticism. Implications and future directions of the findings are subsequently discussed.
Cooking with Goethe: Gaining Insights and Foresights Through Cultural Patterns in Everyday Life
Ramona Wehlig, Thomas Pohne, Jens Lönneker, Kirsten Juchem, ESOMAR, Qualitative, Barcelona, November 2010
Across individuals, cultures or target groups, Psychological Morphology describes how habits, emotions, visuals, products can be seen as unifying "Gestalten" (shapes) that constantly change and develop.
Across individuals, cultures or target groups, Psychological Morphology describes how habits, emotions, visuals, products can be seen as unifying "Gestalten" (shapes) that constantly change and develop. From Goethe’s Morphology of living beings via a deep psychological theory that bridges cultural differences, the presenters studied the structure of everyday cooking and eating habits and arrived at marketable solutions for their client, Vorwerk, maker of the world’s most amazing kitchen robot. Embark on an unusual journey into consumers’ moods and thoughts and what lies beyond them!
Intimate and intimidating: understanding trends and patterns in food and eating culture
Jens Lonneker, Sebastian Buggert and Kirsten Juchem, ESOMAR, Qualitative Research, Istanbul, November 2008
The article describes a research study into attitudes to food. Food is said to have become a self-modelling process and something through which increasingly people define to themselves who they are and want to be, or from which they derive emotional consolation.
The article describes a research study into attitudes to food. Food is said to have become a self-modelling process and something through which increasingly people define to themselves who they are and want to be, or from which they derive emotional consolation. Attitudes to food and detailed eating habits were investigated in seven countries (six in Europe plus US). Depth interviews and internet diaries were involved. The psychological significance of specific eating habits was explored. The cultural contexts were found to differ between countries. In Spain, Italy and Poland, family eating is still an ideal and gives rise to a tension with the fragmented modern lifestyles now dominant in the US, France, UK and Germany. Also, food habits are becoming more fragmented with lifestyles and individuals are increasingly intimidated by food and torn between the demands of aesthetics and indulgence. Marketers and products need to address the specific situations in which different functions are demanded from food.
Foods, diet and wellbeing - monitoring consumer trends for competitive advantage
Roger Smith and Bill Parton, ESOMAR, Annual Congress, London, September 2006
This paper provides an indication of how specific types of analyses based on trend data can help to anticipate and reduce the uncertainty associated with the future.
This paper provides an indication of how specific types of analyses based on trend data can help to anticipate and reduce the uncertainty associated with the future. Specifically it describes how this insight has contributed to Kraft's health and wellness activities in the context of product development and marketing communications.
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