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Diffusion of account planning in Indian ad agencies: an organisational perspective
Padmini Patwardhan, Hemant Patwardhan and Falguni Vasavada-Oza, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 30, No. 4, 2011, pp. 665-692
Account planning is recognised as a best practice in British and American advertising. Despite reports of its global growth, information on its use around the world is limited.
Account planning is recognised as a best practice in British and American advertising. Despite reports of its global growth, information on its use around the world is limited. This study focuses on account planning in India, a region of considerable importance to international advertisers and advertising agencies. Using a two-stage organisational innovation diffusion framework, it examines planning initiation and assimilation in the Indian ad industry. It also investigates the impact of organisational factors on its diffusion. Results from the web survey (154 respondents from 101 agencies) indicate that, while initiation is widely reported in India, planning assimilation in agency activities is limited. Size and global agency affiliation (structural variables) affect initiation; leadership commitment and agency innovativeness (managerial and cultural variables) impact both initiation and assimilation. Similarities and differences with account planning use in UK and US agencies are discussed.
A longitudinal study of the profession's' attitudes towards competition and advertising
Michael Fay and John Bell, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 17, No. 3, 1998
Attitudes to competition and advertising of five professions (doctors, dentists, vets, lawyers, accountants) in New Zealand were monitored in three surveys in 1985, 1988 and 1994.
Attitudes to competition and advertising of five professions (doctors, dentists, vets, lawyers, accountants) in New Zealand were monitored in three surveys in 1985, 1988 and 1994. Background (development of professional advertising) summarised. Result: over the 9 years there has been a marked trend in all five professions towards an acceptance of a competitive orientation, and advertising in particular. A partial exception to this trend has been attitudes to matters directly related to money (e.g. fees and credit facilities), where there was less enthusiasm for competition. Attitudes to advertising by professional practices have relaxed sufficiently to question whether advertising need to be a matter of concern to the professions. There were some differences between the five professions. Greater competition has developed interest in `relationship marketing'.
Comparing Intensity and Effectiveness of Marketing Communications: Services vs. Non-services
J. Duncan Herrington, James G. Lollar, Michael J. Cotter and James A. Henley, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 36, No. 6, November/December 1996
Much of the literature regarding the advertising of services implies that services are more difficult to communicate than non-services.
Much of the literature regarding the advertising of services implies that services are more difficult to communicate than non-services. Assuming that this is true, is it reasonable to expect that services communications will be comparatively less effective at generating sales? To address this question, this study compares the intensity and effectiveness of total marketing communications among service and non-service firms serving consumer and industrial customers. Additional comparisons were made using advertising alone. The results suggest that, contrary to expectations, services communications appear to be no less effective at generating sales than non-services communications. In fact, the impact of marketing communications is higher for consumer service firms than for consumer non-service firms - at least in the short run. In light of these findings, several general implications for both researchers and services marketers are discussed.
Customer focus in a service context. The case of real estate agents
Enno Masurel, Peter Risseeuw, Yvonne van Everdingen and Ingrid van Rijn, ESOMAR, Research Methodologies, November 1996
Customer orientation is the focus of this paper. The primary purpose of the underlying study is to measure the customer focus of real estate agents.
Customer orientation is the focus of this paper. The primary purpose of the underlying study is to measure the customer focus of real estate agents. The Narver and Slater (1990) scale was made operational to fit the situation of the real estate agents in order to translate customer focus into specific activities designed to increase business performance. The ultimate purpose of the study is to determine the strength of the relationship between business performance and customer focus. This paper presents the research results and discusses the appropriateness of the customer focus element of the Narver and Slater (1990) scale in a services context. Narver and Slater (1990) describe market orientation based on three behavioral components. These components are customer orientation, competitor orientation and interfunctional coordination. In a research project conducted for the Netherlands Real Estate Agents Association the goal was to measure the customer orientation of the members and to determine whether there is a relationship between customer orientation and business performance. The research done by Narver and Slater (1990) served as a guideline for this study. The elements of their customer orientation scale were presented to the respondents of this study in two forms: 1. the original Narver and Slater questions; and 2. questions about activities of the real estate agents related directly to the scale items. This study provides researchers with a good example of how customer focus can be measured and adapted towards a specific service situation. It also shows that the Narver and Slater scale can be adapted and used in a small business services setting. The context within which the research took place was different to the Narver and Slater study so therefore our study provides support for the validity of the scale. In the following section an overview of the relevant literature is provided. Then we provide a description of the survey data and the variables used in the analyses. The results of the analyses are then presented, followed by a discussion of the main conclusions.
The marketing of a professional service: opticians
Prof Christina Fulop and Kevin Warren, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 11, No. 4, 1992
In less than a decade, a series of rapid and radical changes in legislation have led to structural and competitive changes in the market for eye care.
In less than a decade, a series of rapid and radical changes in legislation have led to structural and competitive changes in the market for eye care. In the short period between 1984-9 the ban on advertising was lifted; dispensing of spectacles for most people by unqualified and unregistered supplier was permitted; National Health Service (NHS) spectacles were phased out; universal free sight testing was abolished; and the sale of simple, ready-made, non-prescription reading spectacles by unqualified vendors was legalized. This article considers the effects of the partial deregulation of the profession of opticians on the marketing strategies employed both by newcomers attracted by liberalization, and of traditional opticians compelled to adapt their operations and organization. First, the changes in the legal framework are examined and compared with that in which the opticians operated prior to 1984. Second, the competitive and commercial marketing environment which has developed as a result of this legislation is analysed, together with the other environmental pressures which have affected this market. Third, the marketing strategies adopted by different types of opticians with regard to positioning, pricing, product range, service and location are discussed. Finally, due to the importance attached by public policy to the lifting of the ban on advertising, the extent to which opticians have used advertising and other types of promotional activities to communicate with their customers is analysed.
An exploratory study of marketing orientation in the UK consulting engineering profession
Robert E Morgan and Neil A Morgan, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 10, No. 4, 1991
This paper details the results of an empirical study into the role of marketing in consulting engineering service firms in the UK.
This paper details the results of an empirical study into the role of marketing in consulting engineering service firms in the UK. These data indicate that the marketing function is generally accepted as a 'legitimate' management activity. Nevertheless, upon further analysis, it is revealed that the 'trappings' of marketing prevail, where firms have failed to address their substantive marketing capabilities. This provides a major concern within the developing competitive climate, in that firms are neglecting the market-led orientation that is fundamental to the implementation of the marketing concept.
Communications and the reality of marketing in professional service firms
Neil A Morgan, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 9, No. 4, 1990
Following the relaxation of regulations concerning the use of many forms of marketing communications activity in a large number of professions beginning in the USA in 1977 and reaching the UK in 1984, there has been a growing interest in the area of professional services marketing.
Following the relaxation of regulations concerning the use of many forms of marketing communications activity in a large number of professions beginning in the USA in 1977 and reaching the UK in 1984, there has been a growing interest in the area of professional services marketing. However, the main focus of academic research has been in the area of advertising and the professions. This article describes the results of a survey study of the internal role and function of marketing in the accounting and legal professions in the UK. The results suggest that in reality the problems faced by professional services' marketers are internal, in terms of developing a marketing orientation and reducing barriers to the implementation of marketing strategies and plans, rather than external in terms of communicating marketing messages to the external market-place. This suggests a radically different agenda to be addressed by marketing academics interested in professional services marketing that may have a greater impact upon the development of marketing within the professions than the present focus of communications.
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