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Journal of Advertising Research
Int. Journal of Advertising
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The creative code: an organisational influence on the creative process in advertising
Mark W. Stuhlfaut, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 30, No. 2, 2011, pp. 283-304
A study investigated the phenomenon, called the creative code, which is a collection of implicit theories about an advertising agency’s creative product that are held by people within a creative department.
A study investigated the phenomenon, called the creative code, which is a collection of implicit theories about an advertising agency’s creative product that are held by people within a creative department. A foundation was built upon organisation-culture theory. Evidence in literature supported the conceptualisation of the construct. Personal interviews with creative personnel at a midwestern US advertising agency found evidence for a creative code and its components, sources, conditionality and consequences. The study implies that a creative code should be considered as an independent or dependent variable in research about advertising creativity. Client and agency managers and creative employees also may benefit from being more cognisant of the creative code that exists within agency organisations.
Developing a model of tolerance in client–agency relationships in advertising
Mark A.P. Davies and Dayananda Palihawadana, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 25, No. 3, 2006, pp. 381-407
Due to a number of relationship factors, clients can behave very differently towards their advertising agencies when exposed to similar levels of service quality.
Due to a number of relationship factors, clients can behave very differently towards their advertising agencies when exposed to similar levels of service quality. With service quality embedded in relationships, agencies need to gauge the value of their relationships with their clients. Accordingly, we present a model for predicting client tolerance. We determine client tolerance by the extent to which clients respond proportionately to their critical service quality incidents. The model indicates how perceptions of the relationship, in terms of expectations of the future value of exchange, serve to support (weaken) norms of equity and improve (reduce) tolerance. Independent factors associated with equity in the model are tested to explain tolerance. Factors found to discriminate between tolerant and intolerant groups comprise relationship value or strength based on performance attraction, experience, beliefs about relationships, and environmental context. Extensions to the model incorporate agency tolerance and relationship dynamics.
Behavioural response to sales promotion tools: a Hong Kong study
Gerard Prendergast, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 24, No. 4, 2005, pp. 467-486
Supermarkets are heavy users of sales promotion devices and need to be able to assess the effectiveness of these tools.
Supermarkets are heavy users of sales promotion devices and need to be able to assess the effectiveness of these tools. Consumer response (brand switching, purchase acceleration, stockpiling, product trial, spending more) to five different sales promotion tools (price discounts, in-store demonstrations, coupons, sweepstakes and games, and ‘buy one get one free’) was investigated through a survey of 206 supermarket shoppers in Hong Kong. Price discounts and buy-one-get- one-free offers were felt by the consumers to be the most effective promotional tools for inducing purchase acceleration, stockpiling and spending more. In-store demonstrations were felt to be mainly effective in encouraging product trial. Coupons were considered effective mainly in inducing stockpiling and purchase acceleration. Sweepstakes and games, in contrast, were felt to be relatively ineffective in terms of generating all types of consumer response. Recommendations for marketers are presented, along with suggested directions for future research.
Client and agency mental models in evaluating advertising
Michael Collins, Grahame Dowling and Timothy Devinney, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 24, No. 1, 2005, pp. 35-50
Much has been written about the working relationship of advertising agencies and their clients. This paper examines whether advertising agency and client managers use the same mental models to evaluate the creative execution of print advertisements.
Much has been written about the working relationship of advertising agencies and their clients. This paper examines whether advertising agency and client managers use the same mental models to evaluate the creative execution of print advertisements. It is found that while each group uses a different mental model to evaluate four such advertisements, they agree on the most preferred advertisement. Conflict is present but it does not reach a dysfunctional level.
'Birds of a feather flock together': strategic implications for advertising agencies
Robert M. Morgan, Deborah F. Spake, Tommy Neal Crutchfield and Giles D'Souza, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 43, No. 4, December 2003, pp. 361-369
Advertisers who perceived high similarity between themselves and those within their advertising agency rated their agency as superior to those who felt they had less in common with agency contacts.
Advertisers who perceived high similarity between themselves and those within their advertising agency rated their agency as superior to those who felt they had less in common with agency contacts. Outcome measures examined included communication, performance, intention to remain with the agency, and defection following the departure of agency personnel. Differences based on the organizational level of the respondent emerged. Lifestyle factors of similarity were found to play an important role in perceived agency performance, lending support for deeper exploration of client traits and personality prior to the agency’s assignment of personnel to a client account.
Post-adoption attitudes to advertising on the internet
Shelly Rodgers and Qimei Chen, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 42, No. 5, September/October 2002, pp. 95-104
In the last few years, the use and relative effectiveness of internet advertising has been the focus of research attention in the advertising and marketing literatures.
In the last few years, the use and relative effectiveness of internet advertising has been the focus of research attention in the advertising and marketing literatures. However, few studies to date have examined these issues from the practitioners' viewpoint. This study reports the results of an online survey of top executives in advertising, marketing, new media, and public relations agencies concerning the issue of internet advertising. Contrary to past studies, which have examined whether agencies have adopted the internet, the focus here is on the 'post-adoption attitudes' of agency executives after the adoption process has taken place. The primary purpose of this study is to present and test two factors - relative advantage and complexity - that we believe are useful for predicting and, by extension, helping to explain why post-adoption attitudes toward the internet are generally low, particularly for executives of traditional advertising agencies. Our findings shed light on this issue by demonstrating that traditional advertising agencies lag behind other agency types when it comes to internet advertising expertise, profitability, staffing, ability to attract interactive clients, and overall understanding of the internet's value. The findings presented here should be considered preliminary until a larger, more representative sample can be surveyed.
Exploring the Use of Advertising Agency Review Consultants
Fred K Beard, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 42, No. 1, January/February 2002
The author investigates the often controversial role of advertising agency review consultants by focusing on (1) relationships between their use and client-ad agency relationship success, (2) reasons for consultant use, and (3) the extent to which consultants directly influence final review decisions.
The author investigates the often controversial role of advertising agency review consultants by focusing on (1) relationships between their use and client-ad agency relationship success, (2) reasons for consultant use, and (3) the extent to which consultants directly influence final review decisions. The results of a national survey indicate that advertisers who use review consultants evaluate the relationship with their advertising agencies neither more nor less favorably compared to advertisers who manage their own reviews. Review consultants are most commonly hired because advertisers lack the in-house resources they need to conduct a review themselves. The results also indicate that most advertisers who use consultants disagree that they have a direct influence on the final decision regarding which agency to hire.
Linking the Use of Advertising Agency Review Consultants to Agency Search Outcomes
Koanghyub Kim and Fred K Beard, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 41, No. 2, March/April 2001
Advertising agency review consultants play an important, yet controversial, role in the advertising business.
Advertising agency review consultants play an important, yet controversial, role in the advertising business. Although review consultants help manage an admittedly time-consuming and complex task, criticisms concerning their use have gone uninvestigated. The results of the secondary analysis of published industry data reported in this article provide little evidence that consultants often recommend the same agencies for each search they manage or that they encourage marketers to unbundle creative and media portions of their accounts. Similarly, the characteristics of agencies winning consultant- and client-managed reviews are nearly identical, providing little evidence of bias in agency search outcomes.
360 Degrees of Creative Risk
Douglas C West, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 39, No. 1, January/February 1999
This article examines creative-risk-taking behaviour by agencies and the circumstances that increase their propensity to take risks.
This article examines creative-risk-taking behaviour by agencies and the circumstances that increase their propensity to take risks. Drawing upon agency theory, and the wider literature on risk in management decision making, two areas are investigated: (1) resolving the conflicting desires of agencies and advertisers, and (2) how advertisers control agent's risk-taking. A mail survey of senior creative directors across a cross section of agencies is used and data to test the hypotheses gathered. Analyses indicate that agencies are less risk-seeking than expected. Market response and advertisers have the most influence on agency risk-taking, and agencies take a portfolio approach to risk-being more likely to suggest creative risk-taking for relatively smaller clients. The findings are discussed in terms of developing winning creative ideas. Suggestions for future research are identified.
Ad Agencies' Performance and Role in Providing Communication Services in Chile, Japan and the United States
Tom Griffin, David McArthur, Toshio Yamaki and Pedro Hidalgo, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 38, No. 5, September/October 1998
In this comparative study, advertisers of consumer goods and services in Chile, Japan and the United States were questioned about advertising agency performance and the sourcing of marketing communication services.
In this comparative study, advertisers of consumer goods and services in Chile, Japan and the United States were questioned about advertising agency performance and the sourcing of marketing communication services. The principal areas examined are:1. What is the relative importance of agency performance criteria within and among the three countries?2. How would these findings compare with findings from previous studies?3. What role does the agency play in sourcing various marketing communication services in the three countries?The authors report on the methodology and results of a mail survey among the largest advertisers in the three countries.
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