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20130724 to 20130904
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Int. Journal of Advertising
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Fancy a coffee with Friends in 'Central Perk'? Reverse product placement, fictional brands and purchase intention
Laurent Muzellec, Christopher Kanitz and Theodore Lynn, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 32, No. 3, 2013, pp. 399-417
Fictional brands are brands that exist only in the world of fiction and not the real physical world. Reverse product placement consists of transforming these fictional brands into products and services in the real physical world.
Fictional brands are brands that exist only in the world of fiction and not the real physical world. Reverse product placement consists of transforming these fictional brands into products and services in the real physical world. This paper posits that consumers, despite having no pre-existing experience of fictional brands in the real world, may develop positive attitudes towards fictional brands; hence the fundamental managerial question is to ascertain whether these positive attitudes can drive purchase intention to justify the investment into a real product or service based on the fictional brand. Using two fictional service brands, ‘MacLaren’s Pub’ and ‘Central Perk’, featured respectively in How I Met Your Mother and Friends, this study confirms the existence of protobrands, and shows that attitudes towards a fictional brand are driven by perceived service quality, identification with the brand and attitudes towards the television programme. The study goes on to provide evidence that attitudes towards the fictional brand can influence purchase intention of a future defictionalised brand in the real world. The paper contributes to product placement and branding literature in a new emerging area.
A content analysis study of the use of celebrity endorsers in magazine advertising
George E. Belch and Michael A. Belch, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 32, No. 3, 2013, pp. 369-389
This paper presents the results of a content analysis study that examined the use of celebrity endorsers in magazine advertising.
This paper presents the results of a content analysis study that examined the use of celebrity endorsers in magazine advertising. Advertisements appearing in 37 different magazines representing eight major classification categories were analysed to gain insight into the prevalence of use of celebrity endorsers in magazine advertising. Only 10% of the magazine ads run during the time period analysed contained a celebrity, which is much lower than estimates of their use often reported in the media. The findings show that the use of celebrities varies by magazine type with their use being highest for sports and teen publications. The use of celebrities also varies by product/service category as does the type of celebrity utilised, such as athletes, actors/actresses, entertainers and supermodels. Celebrity use was based primarily on the source characteristics of popularity/likeability followed by physical attractiveness. Celebrity use based on expertise occurs primarily for athletic products.
PP for 'product placement' or 'puzzled public'? The effectiveness of symbols as warnings of product placement and the moderating role of brand recall
Tina Tessitore and Maggie Geuens, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 32, No. 3, 2013, pp. 419-442
This research examines the effectiveness of the European ‘PP’ symbol, recently introduced as a warning of product placement in locally produced television programmes.
This research examines the effectiveness of the European ‘PP’ symbol, recently introduced as a warning of product placement in locally produced television programmes. The authors test whether this symbol counters the pervasive effect of product placement on purchase intention. Study 1 shows that the symbol does not prompt resistance to the influence of product placement. This is because the majority of consumers neither notice nor comprehend the symbol. In Study 2, two training methods are tested to increase the symbol’s effectiveness: (1) verbal label training and (2) a combination of verbal label training and information training. The addition of information training is necessary to increase the symbol’s noticeability, whereas verbal label training helps increase the symbol’s comprehensibility and effectiveness in activating persuasion knowledge and decreasing purchase intention. Finally, the results provide evidence that brand recall is crucial for resistance to product placement, suggesting the importance of brand recall as a moderator of resistance processes.
Observations: How the roles of advertising merely appear to have changed
John R. Rossiter and Larry Percy, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 32, No. 3, 2013, pp. 391-398
This article is a commentary on the theme of the 2012 ICORIA Conference held in Stockholm, which was about ‘The changing role of advertising’.
This article is a commentary on the theme of the 2012 ICORIA Conference held in Stockholm, which was about ‘The changing role of advertising’. We propose that the role of advertising has not changed. The role of advertising has always been, and will continue to be, to sell more of the branded product or service or to achieve a higher price that consumers are willing to pay than would obtain in the absence of advertising. What has changed in recent years is the notable worsening of the academic–practitioner divide, which has seen academic advertising researchers pursuing increasingly unrealistic laboratory studies, textbook writers continuing to ignore practitioners’ research appearing in trade publications and practitioner-oriented journals, and practitioners peeling off into high-sounding but meaningless jargon. Also evident is the tendency to regard the new electronic media as requiring a new model of how advertising communicates and persuades, which, as the authors’ textbooks explain, is sheer nonsense and contrary to the goal of integrated marketing. We provide in this article a translation of practitioners’ jargon into more scientifically acceptable terminology as well as a classification of the new advertising formats in terms of traditional analogs with mainstream media advertising.
Perceived 'Hispanicness' versus 'Americanness': A study of brand ethnicity with Hispanic consumers
Cong Li, Sunny Tsai and Gonzalo Soruco, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 32, No. 3, 2013, pp. 443-465
This article discusses how consumers differentiate competing brands of similar utilitarian values on the basis of a brand’s cultural association, namely brand ethnicity, and examines how the perceived brand ethnicity influences consumers’ brand preference and choice.
This article discusses how consumers differentiate competing brands of similar utilitarian values on the basis of a brand’s cultural association, namely brand ethnicity, and examines how the perceived brand ethnicity influences consumers’ brand preference and choice. Study findings, based on both qualitative and quantitative research with self-identified Hispanic consumers, indicate that Hispanic consumers associate certain brands with Hispanic culture and other brands with American culture. In a hypothetical purchasing scenario, the perceived brand ethnicity affects consumers’ brand preference significantly in accordance with their cultural orientation. However, in a real consumer behaviour setting, external factors such as brand accessibility attenuate the effects of brand ethnicity.
Development of TV advertising literacy in children: Do physical appearance and eating habits matter?
Julia Spielvogel and Ralf Terlutter, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 32, No. 3, 2013, pp. 343-368
This study investigates the role of physical appearance (body mass index (BMI), body shape perception, self-esteem) and variables related to eating habits (food choice, critical attitude towards food, parents’ attitude towards food) in the development of advertising literacy in children focusing on food advertising.
This study investigates the role of physical appearance (body mass index (BMI), body shape perception, self-esteem) and variables related to eating habits (food choice, critical attitude towards food, parents’ attitude towards food) in the development of advertising literacy in children focusing on food advertising. Based on the concept of self-esteem and the theory of cognitive dissonance, a research model is developed and tested in an empirical study with 249 children aged 7 to 11. Using PLS path modelling, self-esteem and critical attitude towards food are identified as factors influencing advertising literacy directly. Self-esteem is significantly influenced by children’s BMI and body shape perception, while critical attitude is determined by children’s food choices and children’s perception of their parents’ attitude towards food. Evidence was found that the influence of body shape perception on advertising literacy is fully mediated by self-esteem. The results link variables related to physical appearance and eating habits to how children deal with advertising. Implications for academic research and public policy are discussed, and the study raises issues for children’s advertising literacy support and training.
Discriminating between behaviour using market data from panels
Hsiu-Yuan Tsao, Leyland Pitt and Colin Campbell, International Journal of Market Research, Digital First, August 2013
Considerable research exists on stochastic models of switching behaviour that uses sequences of individual-level purchase data.
Considerable research exists on stochastic models of switching behaviour that uses sequences of individual-level purchase data. While at the individual level, sample size and sequence length are limiting factors, at the aggregate level, heterogeneity with respect to purchase sequences may assist in interpreting results. The authors propose an approach to discriminate between the switching behaviour of variety seeking, indifference and reinforcement. Only the proportion of 100% loyal customers, market share data and an estimation of the promotional effect - information all available from consumer panel data - are necessary to fit the model.
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